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ARCHITECTURE

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by

Honey Grace E. Mangubat

on 27 August 2015

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Transcript of ARCHITECTURE

1. Architecture of Mesopotamia
a) Architecture of the Sumerians
Zigurrat
- typical buildings of the Sumerians
- centralized arrangement with vertical axis of the structure conveys a sense of stability and order
-
temple on top
represents the god-centered structure and dependence on God
1. Early Christian and Byzantine Architecture
ARCHITECTURE
b) Architecture of the Assyrians
Sargon's Palace

- stood as a representative of the Assyrian sculpture
- built above the ground level of the city (idea: King stood between god and the people)
c) Architecture of the
Neo-Babylonians (575 BC)
Ishtar Gate of Babylon
- built for king Nebuchadnezzar II
- lined with several beasts done in brightly colored glazed bricks and dedicated to the Goddess Ishta
d) Architecture of the Persians
Royal Palace at Persepolis
- representative of Persian architecture
-
overriding element:
repetitious vertical line represented by columns and ceremonial figures



ARCHITECTURE
IN THE ANCIENT WORLD
2. Architecture of the
Ancient Egypt
a) Architecture of the old Kingdom ( 3000- 2130 BC)
Examples:
Mastaba (Arabic for bench)
The stepped pyramid of Zoser
Pyramids of Gizeh


MASTABA
rectangular brick or stone structure with slopping flat or recessed sides, erected over on subterranean tomb chamber
simple steriometric form expressed the Egyptian aspiration of permanence, security and concern for after life.
THE STEPPED PYRAMID OF ZOSER
enclosed rectangle of 545 x 278 outlets surrounded by a 10- meter high wall of limestone
conveys supremacy and power of the king even after his death

PYRAMIDS AT GIZEH
signify the height of pharaonic power
symbolizes permanent and stability together with transcendence
b) Architecture of the Middle Kingdom (2130-1580 BC)
ROCK-CUT TOMBS AT BENI-HASAN
contained the fundamental units of Egyptian culture:
portico or vestibule, columned hall and sacred chamber
c) Architecture of the
New Kingdom (1580-322 BC)
MORTUARY TEMPLE OF HATSHEPSUT
combination of the horizontal and vertical axes
symbol of peace on Earth
focused on sequences, progression, symmetry, balance and harmony with natural setting
Other Temples:
Mortuary Temple of Ramses II

Temples of the Ancient Gods

Temple of Amon-re at Karnak

Temple of Amon-Mut-Khonsu at Luxor
3. Aegean and
Ancient Greek Architecture
a) Aegean Architecture
(1600-1200 BC)
PALACE AT KNOSSOS, CRETE (1600-1400 BC)
shows centralized arrangement
b) Ancient Greek Architecture
essentially columnar and trabeated
Greek temple 3 parts: Architectural Order
the platform or base
the columns
the superstructure
Doric Order
- earliest Greek architectural order
- is massive and severe in appearance
- muscular order
Corinthian Order
- a variant of the Ionic Order
- does not consist of volutes but of stylized acanthus leaves
- feminine order
Ionic Order
- characterized by the use of volutes
- feminine order
4. Etruscan and Ancient Roman Architecture
ARCHITECTURE
IN THE MEDIEVAL WORLD
Christian Basilica
a rectangular building with an apse for the altar at one end, and as far as the form is concerned, based on the straight line, interpreted as path
Martyrium
a circular building, interpreted as center
Early Christian
Architecture
Byzantine Architecture
2. The Islamic Architecture
The most important contribution of the

Islamic Architecture
is the development of a new kind of interior space, using the Roman and Byzantine dome as a point of departure. Besides the
mosque
principal building types of Islam, there were the
palace
,
tomb
and the
fort.
850 - 1600 AD
3. The Carolinian, Ottonian and Romanesque Architecture
(800- 900 AD)
The
Carolinian Architecture
was characterized by an emphasis on the west work, on the temporal power of the emperor. Pope and Emperor join hands in perfect quality.
The

Romanesque Architecture (100-1200 AD)

was characterized by bay system, cross- or groin-vaulting, semi-circular arches for the opening in the walls, massive enclosing walls, the incorporation of towers into the church building proper.
3 types of church buildings:
Pilgrimage Churches
Monastic Churches
Imperial Cathedrals
4. Gothic Architecture (1150-1500 AD)
The
Gothic Age
produced just one primary building type,
the city cathedral
.
features of Gothic Style:
- the pointed arch
- the flying buttress
- rib vault
Gothic Architecture
is a carved or moulded architecture.
Etruscan Architecture
-
Etruscan house
was a simple rectangular structure which grew progressively more complex.

-
Etruscan temple
was intended to function primarily as an interior space. It was a place of shelter protected by the wide overhang of its roof.
Ancient Roman Architecture
- is a combination of
axis
and
center
. The Romans were the first to develop interior architectural space on a large scale. The typical roman values of
order, persistence, tenacity in reaching the goal, superiority over the barbarians, and the outgoing conquering mentality
are all embodied
Full transcript