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The Mormons and 49ers Move West

To examine the increased settlement of Utah and California in the 19th century

Kale Blickenstaff

on 10 November 2015

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Transcript of The Mormons and 49ers Move West

The Mormons and 49ers Move West
Mormon Tabernacle
What are Mormon beliefs?
Joseph Smith = God's Prophet
The Book of Mormon = Better Bible
Shared Property
Official Name = Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS)
Lost tribe of Israel?
The practice of having more than one wife.
Set Mormons apart as immoral outcasts
Allowed for all women to be cared for
Faster population growth
Biblical TRUTH = King David (8 named) King Solomon (700 wives, 300 concubines
Mormon leader Brigham Young had between 27-50 wives
"Then shall the kingdom of heaven be likened unto ten virgins, which took their lamps, and went forth to meet the bridegroom. And five of them were wise, and five were foolish. ...While the bridegroom tarried, they all slumbered and slept. And at midnight there was a cry made, Behold, the bridegroom cometh; ...And while they went to buy, the bridegroom came; and they that were ready went in with him to the marriage:" Matthew 25:1-2,5-6c,10a-c (See verses 1-13).
Words of Jesus
Polygamy Today
Where did they come from?
Mormonism began in New York
They were persecuted there and moved to Ohio and Missouri
Upon further persecution Joseph Smith decided to make their own place to live
They built the city of Nauvoo, Illinois on the Mississippi River
Joseph Smith
1846 - This is the only known photograph of Nauvoo
Why leave Nauvoo?
Nauvoo was a successful city
Served as LDS headquarters
Members worked communally to build homes, businesses, and a temple
Neighbors were jealous of their success and intimidated by their growth
Persecution began anew
Joseph and his brother Hyrum Smith were killed by a mob in June of 1844
They decided they were no longer safe anywhere with neighbors
“In early 1832, opposition took a physically violent turn. On Saturday, March 24, Joseph was dragged from his bedroom in the dead of night. His attackers strangled him until he blacked out, tore off his shirt and drawers, beat and scratched him, and jammed a vial of poison against his teeth until it broke. After tarring and feathering his body, they left him for dead. Joseph limped back to the Johnsons' house and cried out for a blanket. Through the night, his friends scraped off the tar until his flesh was raw.”
What did they do then?
Brigham Young and other leaders decided the people needed to move far out west
Rocky Mountains = Safety
Left Nauvoo, 1846
Built their first colony in Utah 1847
Brigham Young
Ancestor of
Where did they go?
Approximately 1300 miles
A Mormon camp in Iowa along the route to Winter Quarters after expulsion from Nauvoo in 1846.
The trail over a steep mountain.
500 men left the group to fight the war with Mexico
Eventually they settle in the valley of the Great Salt Lake and made permanent homes.
War, War, and More War
Everywhere the Mormons settled resulted in fighting with neighbors.
1838 – Missouri Mormon War
1844 – Illinois Mormon War
1857 – Utah War
Mountain Meadows Massacre
Mormons Today!
The California Gold Rush
1848 marked a large increase in immigration to California
Gold was discovered at Sutter's Mill outside of Sacramento in 1849 which drew thousands of gold seekers to the California Territory called 49ers
"Panning" for gold
Gold and Silver mines are discovered throughout the west
Miners come from all over the world, but thousands from China
Chinese miners working an abandoned "tailing"
At the beginning of the Gold Rush there was very little crime. As more and more settlers poured in and land became hard to get crime began to rise
In 1851 the CA legislature made it a crime punishable by death to steal more than $100
Most miners were young and adventerous and would gamble away all their profits
Dry goods stores would keep miners in a cycle of debt.
There wasn't much local government to control the settlers, men began to take the law into their own hands
Making money without mining!
John Sutter
Tried to build an agircultural empire on the American River (fail)
Tried to keep the discovery of gold at his mill a secret (fail)
Once the secret got out he couldn't keep people off his land and ends up leaving California penniless (epic fail)
Henry Wells and William Fargo
Decided to profit from the gold rush by selling services to the miners
Created Wells Fargo and Co. selling mail banking and stagecoach services to miners
Levi Strauss
Ran a successful dry goods store
Patented canvas pants with riveted pockets
Now called LEVIS
Samuel Clemens aka "Mark Twain"
Headed west seeking gold
Wrote about adventures while traveling (Huck Finn, Tom Sawyer)
Father of American Literature
Juaquin Murietta aka "The Mexican Robin Hood"
either infamous bandit or mexican patriot
fights against what he sees as injustices against minorities
symbol of "Vigilante Justice"
Philip Armour
Started a butcher shop to supply meat to miners
With this $ he builds Armour and Co. in Chicago
Lotta Crabtree
Began acting on stage at age 6
Always paid for performance in gold
Known as "The Nation's Darling"
Was matron of Sing Sing prison
believed women could "civilize" the miners
advocated social reforms
wrote "Life on Prarie Lands"
Juana Briones
Mother of 13, divorced an abusive husband
ran a dairy and clinic prior to "Rush"
bought 4,400 acres of land in San Fransisco
CA government tried to take her land, but she fought in the courts (all the way to Supreme) and won her right to own the land
List some SPECIFIC groups of people we have already discussed moving west.
Other Vigilantes!
Full transcript