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Dehydration Synthesis and Hydrolysis

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Corinne Perloski

on 4 September 2013

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Transcript of Dehydration Synthesis and Hydrolysis

Dehydration Synthesis and Hydrolysis
The Synthesis and Breakdown of polymers
Polymers are created through a process called a condensation reaction.

Condensation Reactions Form Polymers
Hydrolysis Breaks Down Polymers
The reverse of a dehydration reaction, hydrolysis breaks apart polymers with the addition of a water molecule.
The Basics:
-Macromolecules (i.e. Carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids) are huge and made of thousands of atoms.



Polymers are broken down through the reverse process, hydrolysis.
A Condensation reaction is when two molecules are covalently bonded through the loss of a molecule.
More Specifically, these are
dehydration reactions
, as an H2O molecule is lost.
This is repeated over many times to connect many monomers into a polymer.
Enzymes are special macromolecules, that speed up this chemical reaction.
Examples of Dehydration Reactions and Hydrolysis:

Digestion - polymers are too large to enter cells, so they undergo hydrolysis and break down to enter the bloodstream and then cells.
Then dehydration reactions take place to rebuild the polymer inside the cell.


The Diversity of Polymers:
Polymers are constructed from 40-50 different monomers, so an almost endless combination of polymers is possible.
These organic compounds, Carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids,
are made of
polymers
.
A
polymer
is a long molecule with similar building blocks linked by covalent bonds. (Imagine a train.)
The "building blocks" are smaller molecules called monomers.
http://www.cengage.com/biology/discipline_content/animations/reaction_types.html



Therefore smaller molecules (monomers) common to all organisms are ordered in unique macromolecules.
The result of these different combinations can explain why siblings look different:
Ankit M. Emily L. Corinne P.
Molecular differences in DNA and proteins.
Human siblings to unrelated humans to other species all have different appearances due to different polymers.
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