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Week 5 Advertising and Society Stereotypes and Advertising

An overview of stereotypes in U.S. advertising
by

Ian Kivelin Davis

on 7 April 2018

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Transcript of Week 5 Advertising and Society Stereotypes and Advertising

Stereotypes
in Advertising

"you've come a long way, baby"
while this famous cigarette ad tries to commune with "liberated" women, let's look at some numbers
gender in ads
"Rape culture?"
Earnings
Using pen and paper, rate the following ads in
terms of the representation of gender roles
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Very Sexist
Sexist
Not Very Sexist
4 Tropes of Gender in Ads
Dis-
memb-
erment

Gender empowerment
women in US society
Gender Division
(divide and sell)
"He wouldn't be afraid to show his feminine side . . .
if he had one."
(objectification)
(equality through consumption)
"Typical!"
(typical roles played out with product)
Stereotypes are unavoidable
vs.
Stereotypes do harm
use of preconceived notions "essentializes"
Today we focus on the potential harm in advertising's use of women.
Learning Goals:
Conclusions
while ads must use stereotypes, they do so at the risk of essentializing and entrenching divisions/preconceived notions
8
they convey meaning quickly for 20 second messages
the relationship between theories of "rape culture" and advertising is not direct, but the use of gender themes in advertising shows varying degrees of sexism
for further thought: since ads must make use of preconceived notions to quickly communicate to ad users, is it doomed to "cultivate" existing stereotypes?
2. gain practice critically assessing the use of stereotypes in ads
3. recognize advertising as institution "cultivating" cultural roles . . . but to what effect?
1. basic understanding of social condition of women in US
"Cultivation theory"
Rather than "persuasion" theories that predict attitudes after exposure to a specific message, "cultivation theory" describes a more subtle but powerful process stemming from the pervasive presence of advertising in society.
In short, values are cultivated as we sort through our ad-saturated environment.
-4 to 9 times more frequent in the U.S. than in Europe; and rape is 7 times higher than in Europe
-1.3 women in the U.S. are raped every minute or 683,000 per year
-of the R and NC-17 rated films released between 1996-2006, 21% of the movies had rape scenes and 35% had characters engaged in sexually violent behaviors
-20-25% of college women experience attempted or actual rape during their college career
-The National Victim Center also reported that 1 out of 10 girls in grade 12 experience either violence and/or rape while on a date
-1 in 8 adult women have been a victim of forcible rape in their lifetime
girls, self-image, technology
Dale: Kids or soldiers of social fortune?
Announcements:
Exam 1 will be sent out Friday after class
Take-home exam; 10 short answer essays
Hardcopy due in folder Monday
How to study? Review quizzes, presentations and readings
Daniel: good dinosaur: tapping into children's insecurities?
Latesha
Social acceptance: fuel for dancing like an adult
Making of
The pay gap also exists among women without children.
among full-time workers one year after college graduation — childless — women were paid just 82 percent of what their male counterparts were paid.
*
*http://www.businessinsider.com/salary-growth-between-men-and-women-2012-5
**
**http://www.bls.gov/opub/ted/2008/oct/wk4/art04.htm
Female authority in advertisements
Social consequences?
What messages will kids take away?
Fill in the stats
White
African American
Aggressiveness
Order-giver
Representation of African Americans in 1990s Prime Time ads
Sex Object
Home setting
Men
Women
Men
Women
13.91
9.51
37.78
11.11
32.14
17.09
16.13
6.25
*
*Coltrane and Messineo (2000):
7.59
25.80
6.67
10.10
26.23
39.12
13.33
30.30
What is feminism?
the advocacy of women's rights on the grounds of political, social, and economic equality to men
What is a feminist critique of ads?
research focused on analyzing explicit and implicit representation of women and gender relations and social power
(Economic equality)
(social equality)
(developed after the company's research found that men shy away from diet drinks that aren't perceived as "manly" enough)
"According to market researchers, advertisers are aware of their potential impact on consumers as they consciously deploy symbols, signs, and frames to position their products and invoke specific ‘‘realities’’ (Baran, Mok, Land, & Kang 1989; p. 48). "
"Most seek to sell some portion of the American Dream in an artistic style that Goffman (1979) labels 'commercial realism’ and Schudson (1984) calls ‘capitalist realism.’"
"Marketing theories suggest that this intentional
commercial framing is intended to capture the symbolic significance of idealized rituals and allow consumers to place themselves in desired social
roles (Hirschman & Holbrook, 1982; Rook, 1985; Solomon, 1983)."
"In attempting to invoke these ‘realities,’ advertising focuses on the visible and superficial, offering up perfect distilled images of beautiful people happily
consuming products (Fowles, 1996)."
social esteem and gaming?
social acceptance via products
The real commdification of young girls and boys start directly when they are starting to be influenced abotu their peers and start to notice the societal pressures around them, which would be adolescence.
When you are in middle school you want to be exaclty like yout friends, wheter thats how you dress, the activites you are interested in, and even how much and when you eat.
Marissa S
. . . I remember going to the Claire's and buying
those best friends necklaces. It’s crazy that I had to purchase necklaces to express my friendship. Nowadays, I mainly see this in my cousin. She is a tween, and she is so vulnerable to these ads and the commodification of childhood. She has severe anxiety in school because her parents wouldn’t let her have items that all her friends have. It’s horrible that commodification has created so many psychological problems in children.
Jatzari
The commodification of childhood means that children are being constructed through the media. . . Not only do these ads tricks kids into thinking they need these brand clothings or the latest technology as a way to keep up with society, but they also change the way in which kids look for fun and enjoy their childhood.

Just how they use the need for acceptance by others, to sell brands like Nike, Justice, or even Coach, they use that same desire to influence kids into thinking that their happiness and fun depends on a certain product.
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