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The Marine Water Biome

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Brendan Yu

on 24 May 2013

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Transcript of The Marine Water Biome

WHAT IS A BIOME ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? A biome is a large natural community of particular plants and animals in a major habitat. All biomes have different weather, geography, and rainfall. There are six major different biomes on earth, they are freashwater, marine, deserts, forests, grasslands, and tundras. PRODUCERS Food web Large sharks Marlin Smaller sharks Tuna Squid Lantern fish Amphipods Mackerel lancet fish ocean sunfish Copepods pteropods diatoms shrimp dionflagellates ] sea cucumber starfish Decomposers LOCATION Decomposers Decomposers are like the garbage men of the marine biome. They go around eating all of the dead plants and animals. They then break them down into nutrients for the plants. A good example of a decomposer is algae. Algae is a group of organisms from different phylogenetic groups. Algae does not have true roots, stems, leaves, vascular tissue, and it has a simple reproductive system. Another example of a decomposer is a starfish. There are about 2,000 species of starfish living all over the world's oceans. The larger species can live for over 30 years. They eat clams, sea snails, mussels, and oysters. Despite having complex nervous systems sea stars do not have a true centralized brain. They have senses to detect touch, light, temperature, orientation and chemicals in the water. Some other decomposers include sea cucumbers, sea worms, sea slugs, and brittle stars THE PACIFIC OCEAN THE ATLANTIC OCEAN THE ARCTIC OCEAN THE INDIAN OCEAN The marine biome is the largest biome in the world. It covers three fourths or 70% of earth! And..... Temperature algae The temperature of the Marine biome varies hugely because of its massive size.The lowest water temperature is in the arctic it is 23 degrees fahrenheit (2 degrees celsius). The Highest temperature is near the equator and is 82 degrees fahrenheit (28 degrees celsius). Currents regulate the temperature of the Marine biome. The Marine biome is layered and each layer has a different temperature. The surface layers are warmer than the bottom layers. You may think that precipitation is not important in the marine biome but it is actually one of the most important factors. One reason is that the marine biome is a major part of the water cycle. most of the water from the ocean is the rain water. In the water cycle the water gets evaporated from the sun and combines with dust in the air and forms a cloud. Then when the cloud collects enough water it rains. The water pours back into the ocean. The estimated amount of rain fall over the ocean is 398,000 km3 (95,000 cu mi) each year. Here's a cool fact ! ! ! ! !
! ! ! ! ! The Marine biome is located at..... Yellow = Primary Blue = Producers Red = secondary Brown = Decomposers consumers consumers Black = suns energy the sun THE Antarctic Ocean (The Southern Ocean) Producers are plants that can photosynthesize. They create energy from sunlight and carbon dioxide. They are at the end of the food chain and are a massive source of our energy. The energy they create is their food source and ours. Without these, there would be no life at all. One example of a producer is seaweed. Although it resembles a plant, seaweed is actually a type of complex algae, it builds itself into complicated multi-cellular versions that can stand deep and turbulent parts of the ocean. Like plants, seaweed depends on sunlight to create energy through photosynthesis. Another example of a producer is phytoplankton. Phytoplankton are microscopic plants that live in the ocean. Like all plants, phytoplankton uses photosynthesis to convert sunlight to create energy. Phytoplankton differ from land-based plants in that they do not have roots, stems, or leaves.There are many species of phytoplankton that all have a different shape. Some other producers include zooxanthellae and turf algae. Pictures of Producers DID YOU KNOW THAT... More than 90% of life on Earth is living in the oceans and over 1 million plants and animals have been discovered in Earth's oceans. Primary Consumers The Abiotic Factors of the Marine Biome Abiotic factors are nonliving parts of an ecosystem that effect the plants and animals that live there. There are 11 main Abiotic factors in the marine biome. Temperature Salinity The salinity is the measure of the dissolved salts in the ocean water. In the Marine biome the average salinity in most of the oceans is about one cup of salt per gallon of ocean water. The salinity is important to the biome because the organisms living there are used to and need the salt to survive. The temperature is the degrees or amount of heating in an area. The temperature is a major part of the biome because ocean creatures need specific temperatures to be able to grow, survive, and reproduce. Temperature changes where organisms live and it affects how they find their food, when they reproduce, where they migrate to, and where they are found in the ocean. Nutrients Nutrients are substances in an environment that creatures eat to grow and live. Some nutrients are phosphorus, sulfur, nitrogen, iron, carbon, potassium, magnesium, and their different forms. These nutrients are broken down by the decomposers from dead plants and animals. Nutrients is important to the biome because the organisms need them to grow and have energy. Oxygen Oxygen is in almost all the ocean water. most ocean creatures breath oxygen. Marine mammals and turtles breath air just like humans. Fish, worms, mollusks, and crustaceans, breath water and get the oxygen they need from the water. The oxygen in the ocean water is produced by phytoplankton and algae during the process of photosynthesis.Low oxygen amounts in the water are often signs of water pollution. Oxygen is greatly important because most organisms need oxygen to breath, and it is required for photosynthesis. Solar Energy Solar energy is the heat and light from the sun. Sunlight is the main source of energy for all living things. The energy is first absorbed by the during photosynthesis. Then the algae and phytoplankton transfer the energy to carbohydrates which can be eaten by the organisms. Solar energy is essential to the marine biome because it gives energy to all the creatures as carbohydrates. Water Clarity Water clarity is the distance of how far bellow the surface of the water that light penetrates. Water clarity is determined by the amount of dissolved particles in the water. Dissolved particles can include things from plants that color the water brown or red. Particles can also include free-floating algae, sand, clay, and phytoplankton. these particles reduce the water clarity. The water clarity impacts the biome hugely because if the water has bad water clarity it could kill creatures. Tides Tides are the short changes in height of the surface of the ocean at certain areas. The rotation of the Earth and the interaction of gravitational forces of the moon and sun create tides. Most of the ocean has two low tides and two high tides each day. The tides are important because as the tide lowers the creatures are threatened by light exposure, wave action, and drying out. Waves Waves are disturbances caused when energy moves through the ocean water. The major cause of waves is the wind. The strength of the wind, the distance the wind blows, and how long the wind blows determine how small or large a wave will be. Waves impact organisms living in rocky and sandy shore areas because they need to have special adaptations to survive the power of breaking waves. Some creatures bury themselves in the sand while others have structures that help them cling on to the rocks. Substrate Substrate is the substances that form the bottom of the ocean or coastal waters. Some ocean substrates are hard rock, sand, clay, silt, coral reef, or artificial structures such as shipwrecks and metal objects. Substrate is one major way to identify different marine ecosystems. Substrate is significant to the marine biome because many marine organisms need specific types of substrate to survive. Images of Decomposers Aerial Exposure Primary consumers are animals that eat primary producers. They are also known as herbivores. One example of a decomposer is a sea urchin. Sea urchins are commonly found in coral reefs. There are nearly 200 species of sea urchins that all come in different shapes and sizes. Sea urchins are omnivores. They feed on Algae from the rocks and coral, they also eat dead fish and mussels. Another example of a primary consumer is a lantern fish. Lantern fish get their name from the rows of glowing lights called photophores that run long their bodies. They are used for counter-illumination and signalling in the dark of the deep sea. Lantern fish feed on invertebrates such as copepods and krill. Aerial Exposure is when organisms contact with the air. Aerial exposure is deadly to many marine species that need moisture. If the creatures are exposed too of then they will dry out. Drying out is not good for the creatures because it makes it hard for them to digest, makes them vulnerable to exposure of sunlight and predators. Aerial exposure impacts the biome hugely because If the organisms get to much aerial exposure they can dry up and die. The longest mountain chain that is known to exist in the Universe is located in the ocean and it is more than 40,000 miles long Secondary consumers Secondary consumers are the animals in the middle of the food chain. They eat primary consumers for their nutrients. One example of a secondary consumer is a whale shark. Whale sharks are the largest fish in the world, at a maximum length of about 65 feet and weight of 75,000 pounds. Whale sharks feed on plankton, small fish, and crustaceans. Another example of a secondary consumer is a lobster. lobsters are part of a very diverse group of invertebrates. They are thought to be capable of living over 100 years old. Lobsters prefer live food. they eat fish, mollusks, worms and crustaceans. Now you know! Currents Current is large flows of water moving horizontal. The currents are controlled by the wind, tides, and power of earths rotation, the sun, and water density. The currents are important because the warm currents move away from the Equator towards the Poles, and cold currents move away from the Poles towards the Equator. This system regulates the earths climate. The currents also distribute eggs, larvae, and nutrients around the ocean. For this reason the currents connect all the ecosystems and make ocean life possible. Images of primary consumers Images of Secondary consumers The worlds oceans contain nearly 20 million tons of gold THANK YOU FOR WATCHING THE MARINE SALT WATER BIOME
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