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Pidgins and Creoles

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Kevin Farid

on 21 June 2013

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Transcript of Pidgins and Creoles

-2nd half of 17th century -> GhaPE
-There are two main GhaPE:
Basilectal GhaPE
&
Mesolectal GhaPE
Pidgins and Creoles
Development of pidgins and creoles
-pidgins evolve out of contact situations, creoles evolve out of pidgins

theories of origin:
-monogenetic approach: nautical jargon theory, relexification theory
-polygenetic approach: baby-talk/foreigner talk theory, universalist theory

developmental stages of pidgins/creoles:
social situation linguistic correlate
1. marginal contact restricted pidgin
2. nativization extended pidgin
3. mother tongue development creolization
4. movement towards standard language decreolization
Structure of pidgins
-limited vocabulary, short words
-simplified grammar:
syntax: -no passive forms
-no definite/indefinite articles
-no complex sentences
morphology: -almost no inflections
-no gender
-no plural marking
phonology: -fewer sounds and less complicated than
related languages

Pidgins and Creoles for Dummies

Pidgin:
simplified language, usually a mixture of two or more languages with a rudimentary grammar and vocabulary. It is used for communication between groups, speaking different languages . Pidgins are not spoken as a first or native language.
Also called contact language.

Creoles:
A creole comes into being when children are born into a pidgin-speaking environment and acquire the pidgin as a first language. What we know about the history and origins of existing creoles suggests that this may happen at any stage in the development of a pidgin.

Purpose:
Slavery, Colonisation (until 1976) and Trade (mainly started after WW2)

Formation:
mainly out of English, French, Portuguese (rarely German)

Pidgin English in Ghana
-5million English Pidgin speaker
-23 million inhabitants
-English used in education and media
-GhaPE is Part off WAPE
-Total of 50-80 Languages 9 official
Examples
1.dat ples, no moskito-s
2.wì get som wumã we dè dè kuk.
3.dem̀ dè kam opĩ faktri-faktri for ɔus.
Bibliography
Pidgins and Creoles. http://www.uni-due.de/SVE/VARS_PidginsAndCreoles.htm (last accessed on June, 20
2013

Pidgin and Creole Languages. http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/~haroldfs/540/handouts/pijcreol/pijcreol.html
(last accessed on June 20, 2013

Structural characteristics of a pidgin or creole. http://www.csuchico.edu/~gthurgood/121/020_Pidgin
%20and%20creoles.pdf (last accessed on June, 20 2013

The Formation of Pidgin Languages. http://archiv.soziologie.ch/texts/docs/PIDGIN.pdf (last accessed on
June, 20 2013

Pidgin and Creole in Ghana http://lingweb.eva.mpg.de/apics/images/0/00/SurveyGhana.pdf

http://books.google.de/books?id=U0NFweXVDOgC&printsec=frontcover&dq=pidgin+in+africa&hl=en&sa=X&ei=KVK4UZzrJYyL4gTek4AI&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=pidgin%20in%20africa&f=false
Unserdeutsch
(Papua New Guinea)
I bezeugen, O mein Gott, du has geschaffen mi, fi erkennen du und fi beten zu du. I bezeugen in diese Moment mein Schwäche und dein Mach, mein Armut und dein Reichtum. Is ni ein anderes Gott, nur Du, de Helfer in Gefahr, de Selbstbestehender.
Pidgins
english based:
Liberian English, Nigerian Creole English
french based:
Camfranglais

Creoles
english based:
Aku, Krio, Kru English, Kam Tok
french based:
Creole (Reunion, Mauritius)
portugese based:
Criol Krioulo,
Angolar --> Kimbundu


Mainly in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania
Less pidginized than in the west
Most prominent feature: limited number of vowels
All syllables equal stress
Final consonant dropping
Word forms are confused

Pidgin English in East Africa

English used in education
Inter-regional communication
Mixing English signals education
„ethiopianised“ due to lack of training

Example: Ethiopia

„mendenewe eha! Beza leya they look like underage girls i don get it.
I mean he usually good at what he dose. Me no like“
„Good jop but is not nice women is not our culture setbeda what?“
„z ladis, z beat, zet nice“

Examples (comments)
Full transcript