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Transcript of OpTiCal FiBeR
THIS IS TO CERTIFY THAT adITYA PRAKASH SHRIVASTAVA OF XII - D DELHI PUBLIC SCHOOL, BHOPAL HAS COMPLETED THE PROJECT "OPTICAL FIBRE" IN THE PHYSICS LAB IN THE SESSION 2013-14. THIS IS THE ORIGINAL WORK OF THE STUDENT WHICH HAS BEEN COMPLETED UNDER THE INNOVATIVE AND ABLE GUIDANCE OF MRS. NIRMALA REDDY AND MR. HEMANT PATIDAR
An optical fiber (or optical fibre) is a flexible, transparent fiber made of high quality extruded glass (silica) or plastic, slightly thicker than a human hair. It can function as a waveguide, or “light pipe”, to transmit light between the two ends of the fiber.Optical fibers are widely used in fiber-optic communications, which permits transmission over longer distances and at higher bandwidths (data rates) than other forms of communication.
Physics Investigatory Project
Aditya Prakash Shrivastava
12th - D
MR. HEMANT PATIDAR
MRS. NIRMALA REDDY
IT HAS BEEN A GREAT PLEASURE FOR ME TO WORK UPON THIS PROJECT. IT HAS GIVEN ME AN OPPURTUNITY TO BROADEN MY VISION. I WOULD LIKE TO THANK MY PHYSICS TEACHER'S MRS. NIRMALA REDDY AND MR. HEMANT PATIDAR AND MY FAMILY FOR THEIR COOPERATION IN COMPLETING THIS PROJECT
THEORY BEHIND OPTICAL FIBERS
Optical fibers typically include a transparent core surrounded by a transparent cladding material with a lower index of refraction. Light is kept in the core by total internal reflection. This causes the fiber to act as a waveguide. Fibers that support many propagation paths or transverse modes are called multi-mode fibers (MMF), while those that only support a single mode are called single-mode fibers (SMF).
MECHANISM OF OPTICAL FIBER
PRINCIPLE OF OPTICAL FIBER
An optical fiber is a cylindrical dielectric waveguide (nonconducting waveguide) that transmits light along its axis, by the process of total internal reflection. The fiber consists of a core surrounded by a cladding layer, both of which are made of dielectric materials. To confine the optical signal in the core, the refractive index of the core must be greater than that of the cladding.
tOTAL INTERNAL REFLECTION
When light traveling in an optically dense medium hits a boundary at a steep angle (larger than the critical angle for the boundary), the light is completely reflected. This is called total internal reflection. This effect is used in optical fibers to confine light in the core. Light travels through the fiber core, bouncing back and forth off the boundary between the core and cladding.
TYPES OF OPTICl fiber
Fiber with large core diameter (greater than 10 micrometers) may be analyzed by geometrical optics. Such fiber is called multi-mode fiber, from the electromagnetic analysis . In a step-index multi-mode fiber, rays of light are guided along the fiber core by total internal reflection.
2. Single mode fiber
Fiber with a core diameter less than about ten times the wavelength of the propagating light cannot be modeled using geometric optics. Instead, it must be analyzed as an electromagnetic structure, by solution of Maxwell's equations as reduced to the electromagnetic wave equation.Fiber supporting only one mode is called single-mode or mono-mode fiber.
3. Special purpose fiber
Some special-purpose optical fiber is constructed with a non-cylindrical core and/or cladding layer, usually with an elliptical or rectangular cross-section. These include polarization-maintaining fiber and fiber designed to suppress whispering gallery mode propagation. Polarization-maintaining fiber is a unique type of fiber that is commonly used in fiber optic sensors due to its ability to maintain the polarization of the light inserted into it.