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Collective Behavior & Social Movements!:))

Anthropology (Sir Duria)

Menorca Rondera

on 20 August 2013

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Transcript of Collective Behavior & Social Movements!:))

Collective Behavior
and Social Movements

design by Dóri Sirály for Prezi
Pre-Conditions for Collective Behavior
Collective Behavior does not simply spring up at any time, in any place. Six conditions typically precede an episode of collective behavior. These conditions or determining factors occur in sequence so that each one creates a social environment that makes the next one possible.
Why study Collective behavior?
Studying collective behavior improves our understanding of how to organize social movements to initiate social change.
refers to ways of thinking, feeling, and acting which develop among large number of people and which are relatively spontaneous and unstructured.
Collective Behavior
Rational Decision Making Approach
According to this theory, collective behavior can be brought about by rational and intelligent decisions when people are confronted by situations where organized norms do not govern collective action.
Ignorant Mass Theory
The belief that collective behavior is the result of uneducated, thoughtless, and impulsive behavior.
Emergent Norm Perspective
This holds that collective behavior is not characterized by unanimity but by differences in expressions and emotions.
Emotional and Social Contagion Theory
Waves of emotions sweep through the crowd, infecting one person after another, much as a highly contagious disease spreads. As excitement builds, people become more and more inclined to act on their mounting feelings of agitation.
Convergence Perspective
This approach holds that participants in a collective behavior are motivated by common forces within them, such as similarity or commonality of aspirations, characteristics, social class, income education, interests and needs.
Value-Added Approach
exist certain conditions which may bring about collective behavior - e.g., structural strain.
Theories about
Collective Behavior
Structural Conduciveness
Social conditions must favor collective action. Ex: ethnic groups with opposing value systems live together in the same area.
Social and Structural strains
Social strain can spring from a sudden disruption of the existing social order, from long-term social change, values conflict between different segments of the society.
Generalized Belief
The participants develop vague perceptions of the event or situation, thereby making it more difficult to define and analyze. This intensifies the tension as it makes the vague threat more imminent.
Precipitating events
In all types of collective behavior, there is an event, or a related set of events that triggers a collective action.
Mobilization of participants
A group of people needs to be mobilized or organized into taking action. Whenever evidence for a cause accumulates, people begin to act on their beliefs, and they mobilize.
Social Control
The governing elite often attempts to stop or prevent collective behavior. In doing this, it can influence the timing, content, direction and outcome. The results are not always what the agents of social control intend.
Rumor is an unverified story that circulates from person to person and is accepted as a fact, although its sources may be vague or unknown.

Typically deal with events and issues of greater importance and magnitude.
Gossip involves known facts.
It deals with the personal affairs of individuals.
Rumor and Gossip
Two human activities which can contribute to the emergence of collective behavior
Types of Collective Behavior
These are temporary collections of people gathered around a person, an issue, an attention-getting object or an event.
Characteristics of Crowd
Circular interaction
Heightened suggestibility
Types of crowd
Casual crowd
Conventional crowd
Acting crowd
Expressive crowd
Refers to a diffused collectivity of people, each responding independently to the same stimulus or event.
Fashion, Fads and Crazes
Refers to the relatively short-lived socially approved variations in clothing and adornment, art, housing and furniture, and other areas of behavior.
Fashion, fads and crazes are forms of different activities or mass interactions.
refers to passing fancies or novelties of interest related to some trivial deviations from the conventional behavior.
refers to new activities which become important in the life of the community.
This type of behavior is elicited in times of disaster and calamities, such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, typhoons or hurricanes, and epidemics.
Dispersed group of people interested in and divided about an issue, engaged in discussion of that issue with a view to registering a collective opinion.
Interest group
Disinterest group
Pressure group
Neutral or listening public
Public opinion
refers to the collective product of the discussion and arrival at a decision.
Social Movements
refers to an interested and motivated gathering of people which aims to modify or change the society's structure or ideology in a concerted and deliberate manner.
Comparison of Collective Behavior
and Social Movements
Collective behavior
Characterized by spontaneity and lack of internal structure.
Social Movements
have a high degree of internal order and a sustained, purposeful orientation.
Types of Social Movements
Alternative movements
movements that aim to achieve some limited but specific change in individuals
Redemptive movements
movements that also focus on the individual, but they seek total, not partial change.
Reformative movements
movements that emphasize changing society rather than individuals. Their aim is moderate or partial change since they view the present social order as basically workable.
Transformative movements
movements that aim at total change in the existing social order.
Mass Communication
refers to an organized communication through organizational structures.
Mass Media
refers to the various means materials or products, both in print and electronic broadcasting forms used in transmitting, distributing or diffusing information to a large number of people.
Purposes of Mass Media
to provide information to a large number of people.
to provide education to the masses.
to provide entertainment
to clarify issues and social concerns
to serve as avenues for propaganda, public relations and political communication
to provide avenues for expression of partisan and non-partisan ideas
to provide avenues for public service announcements
to generate public opinion or call for collective behavior and social movements
to serve as a vehicle for the expression of aroused feelings, pent-up emotions and redress of grievances
Negative Characteristics of Mass Media
the manipulation of information for the benefit of a particular interest
the manipulation of large groups of people through media outlets for the benefit of a particular political party
Bias, political or otherwise towards favoring a certain individual, outcome or resolution of an event
"Envelopmental" journalism which distorts the truth in favor of vested interests.

The corporate media is not a watchdog protecting the people from the powerful; it is a lapdog "begging for scraps"
A good number of propaganda, advertisements and infomercials convey half-truth messages using logical fallacies as propaganda techniques.
Marshall Mcluhan, one of the biggest critics in mass media's history, brought up the idea that "the medium is the message".
propaganda refers to the deliberate and calculated presentation of distorted, one-sided and selective information to the public in order to change its opinion in desired way.
Propaganda Techniques
Ad nausean or repetition
An idea that is repeated enough times.
Ad hominem
means attacking your opponent, as opposed to attacking their arguments.
Appeal to fear
seeks to build support by arousing panic and anxieties in the people.
Appeal to prejudice
emotional prejudgment and one-sided argument against a group of people based on real or imagined characteristics.
"Jump on the bandwagon"
"join the crowd" appeals.
Black-and-white fallacy
presents only two choices
This involves a famous person who endorses or opposes some idea or product.
Propaganda Techniques
associating an idea or a product with something else that is widely respected, admired, or desired.
Name calling
giving something a negative label.
Glittering generality
opposite of name calling. An idea or a product may be associated with a general, ambiguous, but extremely popular concept or belief.
Plain folks
identifying the propaganda with the average person.
assigning blame to an individual or group, thus alleviating feelings of guilt from responsible parties and/or distracting attention from the need to fix the problem.
refers to the use of an event that generates euphoria or happiness, or using an appealing event to boost morale.
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