Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

Day 31 - Distances in Astronomy (notes)

No description
by

Nathaniel Benson

on 30 September 2015

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Day 31 - Distances in Astronomy (notes)

Bellwork
1. What idea is currently used to describe how solar systems, stars, and planets form?

2. What object takes up about 99% of our solar system's mass?

3. How are dwarf planets different from planets?
Gemini
Apollo
Hubble telescope
Voyager 1
Voyager 2
Galileo spacecraft
Cassini spacecraft
Huygens probe
Space station
Phoenix lander
Mars rovers
Space Exploration Mini-Project
Part 1:
Create a historical timeline of human space exploration.
Use information gathered from internet resources.
A good timeline has no FEWER than 10 events.
Your job is to pick and choose what you think are the 10 most important events in history and place them on your timeline.

Part 2:
Pick the event from your timeline that you feel is the most important.
Ask Mr. Benson for approval for this topic (no two groups may do the same topic!)
Create a two minute presentation about the topic you picked, first explaining what it was, secondly justifying why you think it is most important.
Key Terms:
https://quizlet.com/_1jw4rl




Parallax:
Astronomical Unit:
Parsec:
Light Year:
Red shift:
Blue shift:
Doppler effect:
Galaxy:
Electromagnetic Spectrum:
Traveling waves of electric/magnetic fields.

LEAVE SPACE BELOW THIS WEEK'S DEFINITIONS FOR A CHART
Celestial Equator:
a great circle on the imaginary celestial sphere, in the same plane as the Earth's equator. As a result of the Earth's axial tilt, the celestial equator is inclined by 23.4°
Zenith:
an imaginary point directly "above" a particular location, on the imaginary celestial sphere
Celestial Coordinate System:
a system for specifying positions of celestial objects: satellites, planets, stars, galaxies, and so on.
Red Shift:
Any increase in wavelength (decrease in frequency) of light waves due to an object moving AWAY from the viewer.
Blueshift:
Any decrease in wavelength (increase in frequency) of light waves due to an object moving TOWARDS the viewer.
Materials: Notebook + Pen/Pencil
1. Predict what your finger would appear to do relative to the background if you were to put it about 3–4 inches
from your face and close one eye at a time while watching it.
2. Put your finger about 3-4 inches from you face. Close your right eye. Look at your finger with your opened left eye. Now switch opened and closed eyes. Was your prediction correct? Comment.

3. How would the apparent motion of your finger change if you moved your finger twice as far from your face?
4. Now do this. Was your prediction correct? Comment.

5. If you had amazing Stretch Armstrong arms, is there a limit to how far you could move your finger and still
see it appear to move? If so, how far away do you think that would be? (To get an idea of this distance, have
someone far away from you hold up their finger.)
6. What is it about our eyes that allows us to see this apparent motion?
Part II: What happens when your finger is a star?
M
E
Star A
Star B
7. The point labeled E in Figure 2 represents the Earth in
its orbit in January. Use a ruler and draw a line from the
Earth to the background stars going through Star A. Mark
the Earth–Star A–Sun angle. This is called the parallax.

8. Describe what you think will happen to that angle if we were to do what we just did but for Star B.

9. Test your prediction by using Figure 2. Comment on your
results. Were you correct?
10. Now, find where the Earth will be in six months.
The imaginary line that runs from the Earth’s position in
January through the Sun to the Earth’s position in July,
is our baseline. In general, this is the separation between
the positions from which two measurements are made, and
it is perpendicular to the direction to the object whose
distance we are measuring.
Repeat question 7 using star A at this new position in its
orbit. Draw on Figure 3 below where Star A will appear
to be in January and then six months later.

11. Extend our observations over a number of years. How will
Star A appear to move against the background stars?

12. How about star B over the same number of years compared
to the motion of Star A?
13. The apparent motion of stars as seen from Earth relative
to a background of more distant, fixed stars, is known as
stellar parallax. Now think back to your experiment in
part I. What is it about the Earth that corresponds to
blinking your eyes?
1 2 3
14. Below is a set of parallax observations of different stars. Rank them from nearest to farthest. Explain your logic.
Part III: What happens when your eyes are far, far apart?
15. Let’s focus on Star A for now. What would
happen to the parallax angle of A if we measured it from Mars instead of Earth?

16. Consider this conversation between two students:
Student 1: I think that if we measured the parallax of a star from Mars, the angle would be larger than if
we measured it from Earth because Mars has a much larger orbit. This would cause the star to move an angle
comparable to that of its orbit.
Student 2: If we measured the parallax from Mars, the angle would have to be smaller because Mars is farther
from the Sun so the star would also have to be farther away from Mars.
With whom do you agree? Explain.
M
E
Star A
Star B
17. Now test your predictions as well as those of Student 1 and Student 2. Do this by repeating what we did in
question 7, but use the orbit of Mars in Figure 2. What are your results? Why would a longer baseline be
desirable?
BT:
I have one, you have one.
If you remove the first letter, a bit remains.
If you remove the second, bit still remains.
After much trying, you might be able to remove the third one also, but it remains.
Presentations begin tuesday + wednesday (you have 1 extra day to work at home!)
Incomplete/Unfinished presentations = 0
No excuses!!!
Test is this Friday (open notes)

Astronomical Unit
Light Years
1 Au (Astronomical Unit)
93 million miles


1 Ly (Light Year)
5.9 × 10 miles

~5.8 trillion miles
1 pc (Parsec)
1.9 × 10 miles


Speed of Light
~700 million miles per hour

Distances in Astronomy
12
13
1 Parsec = ~3.2 ly
Key Terms:
https://quizlet.com/_1jw4rl

Parallax:
Astronomical Unit:
Parsec:
Light Year:
Red shift:
Blue shift:
Doppler effect:
Galaxy:
Light:

LEAVE SPACE BELOW THIS WEEK'S DEFINITIONS FOR A CHART
Table of Contents
13. Doppler Effect
14. Distances in Space
What makes a planet?
1) orbits a star
2) massive enough to be spherical
3) a clear orbit
LEQ: (p. 14)
How do we measure distances in space?
Bellwork
1. What idea is currently used to describe how solar systems, stars, and planets form?

2. What is the biggest object in our solar system?

3. Where is the Kuiper Belt?

4, How far away do you think the Sun is from the Earth?
Materials: Notebook + Pen/Pencil
BT:
...8, 8, 9, 9, 9, 10, 10, 10, 11, ???,???...
Bellwork
Materials: Notebook + Pen/Pencil
BT:
189, 175, 161, 147, 133, 119, 105, 91, 77, 63, ???, ???,
1. What idea is currently used to describe how solar systems, stars, and planets form?

2. What object takes up about 99% of our solar system's mass?

3. How are dwarf planets different from planets?
Full transcript