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Psychology for Sport - Motivation
Transcript of Psychology for Sport - Motivation
Motivation in Sport
Achievement Motivation Theory
Work through the following questions,
What would be the consequences if an athletes motivation levels were to decrease?
What does a ‘typical’ demotivated athlete look like before competition?
Is motivation something that can be improved or decreased instantaneously?
Motivation in Sport...
Interview your partner about the reasons why they started playing the sport they play, and the reasons why they still play their chosen sport/exercise now.
Write down all the reasons they give you
Rewards that come from the activity itself
The main reasons why we start playing sport
Often related to fun or morals
“I did it because I enjoyed it”
“I did it because I believed it was the right thing to do”
A drive from within
Motivated by outside factors
Can be tangible and intangible.
Often good motivators in the short-term but may have long-term implications.
What impact might extrinsic rewards have on an athletes intrinsic motivation?
Ryan Giggs said he is "motivated by seeing the fans going away happy at the end of the match"
Atkinson (1964) said achievement motivation comes from the individuals personality and is their motivation to strive for success.
‘level of competitiveness’
This can be grouped into 2 categories:
Need to achieve
Driven to succeed for the feelings of pride and satisfaction. They will have no fear of failure
Need to avoid failure
Driven to avoid the feeling of failure, shame and humiliation.
...the factors we believe have contributed to the outcome of a sporting contest
Attribution in Sport
Weiner stated that an athlete merely being successful does not automatically translate into someone feeling confident and motivated. Similarly, experiencing "failure" does not necessarily lead to diminished confidence and low motivation.
Weiner (1986) stated that an athletes explanations, and perceptions of those failures/achievements will help us to understand their motivation to strive for success.
In order to achieve this Weiner's (1992) attribution theory looks at the causes, or attributions they use explain success and failure. He grouped these into 3 categories: Stability, Causality and Control.
Andy Murray post match reaction after winning Australian Open Semi-Final
Lewis Hamilton after winning Istanbul 2010
Stable attribution – realistic, clearer indication of expectations and confidence
Unstable attribution – protect ego, reduce loss of self confidence
Is the reason permanent or can it be changed?
stable or unstable?
What caused it?
external or internal factors?
Locus of control - the extent to which a perfomer believes that the outcome was within their control (or not).
controllable or uncontrollable?
Atheletes will interpret their environment in such a way as to maintain a .................................. ?
They will attribute their successes or failures to factors that will enable them to feel as good as possible about themselves.
For example: when athletes succeed at a task, they are likely to want to attribute this success to their own efforts or abilities; but when they fail, they will want to attribute their failure to factors over which they have no control, such as weather or the opponents fitness
Think about the last time you competed in sport.
Write down all the reasons why you think you won/lost.
Weiner's (1980, 1992) Attribution Theory
Motivational climate -
the environment in which an athlete is working.
2 minutes to decide which statements refer to positive climate, and which refer to a negative climate
Focused on the mastery of tasks
Emphasis on teamwork and co-operation
Focus on outcome - winning
Punishment for mistakes
Those with high ability receive all the attention
Leads to less effort from athletes
Failure attributed to lack of ability
How do you develop a motivational climate...
Task: In groups of 6...
Create a role play of a motivation situation
You must have the following roles:
Roles you could also include:
Opposition - if in match situation
Support Staff - Physio, assisstant coach
What do you know about motivation in sport?
What is Motivation?
“An internal factor that arouses and directs behaviour” Stallings, (1966).
The drive behind why we do something.
“The internal mechanisms and external stimuli which arouses and directs behaviour.” Sage, (1977).
There is no doubt that motivation is a key element in sports performance and if it is insufficient, it is not possible to reach the highest level.
Cox (1991) reveals that “Nothing happens in sport that is devoid of motivation.”
"The direction and intensity of one's effort" (Weinberg and Gould, 1998)
Effects of motivation on sports performance
Motivation is an essential component of successful sports performance
Does motivation effect performance??
Motivation can be....
Leading to over-training, staleness and burn-out
Increased performance, without any negative side effects
the athlete trains under an excessive training load, which they cannot cope with
Inability to maintain a previous performance
Strives to meet training and competition demands despite unsuccessful attempts, leading to an athlete no longer wishing to participate in the sport at all
Match the definition to the term...
Effects of being over-motivated...
What signs may you see at each stage?
"I don't even think about the propect of not winning - it never occurs to me."
Daley Thompson 1984 +1988 Olympic Decathlon Champion
"Negative thoughts lead to negative performance; connection is straightforward as that"
Sally Gunnell Olympic and World champion 400m Hurdler
Effects of achievement motivation in Sport...
= high achievers.
The situation also affects achievement motivation;
If the probability for success is high it weakens the need to achieve.
Naf personalities would enter into this situation more keenly because they know they will avoid failing.
If the probability of success is low and failure is likely it weakens the need to avoid failure.
probability for success
probability for success
What might happen in this situation?
Victoria Pendleton: Cycling's Golden Girl