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Animal Feeding and Nutrition

Animal Feeding
by

Samuel Jones

on 4 February 2013

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Transcript of Animal Feeding and Nutrition

Animal Feeding and Nutrition Feeding Methods Introduction to the Unit and Assesments Construct an acronym to remember the six major nutrient groups Identify different methods of feeding Glossary Plenary Major Nutrients Digestion and Dentition Feeding Plans Delivering Food This assignment will assess P1, P2, P3, P6, M1 & D1 of the Plan and Monitor Animal Feeding unit and P12, P13, P14, P15 & M4 of the Understand the Principles of Zoological Animal Health and Husbandry unit. This assignment is designed to improve your knowledge and ability to feed captive animals. You will produce a range of factsheets outlining the specific nutritional requirements of three zoo animals which will be supplemented by specific feeding plans. Learners will then be encouraged to evaluate existing feeding plans in relation to animal health, welfare and enrichment. Task 3 of this assignment will be assessed practically whereby students must demonstrate their ability to feed different animals in the animal house. Feeding All the activities involved in obtaining, handling and digesting food Vorare A latin word meaning to devour As a class we will play the “What am I?” game! In groups of four you will write down as many animal species as you can think of (the more obscure the better) so you can test the other teams knowledge. Groups will get one point for every correct answer, three points if they ask a question that the other team can’t answer and minus three points if they ask an incorrect question. Nutrient Groups Carnivore: Flesh eating animal Herbivore: Plant eating animal Omnivore: Feeds on both plants and animals But these feeding groups can also be broken down into smaller sub-groups Recap As a class we will play the “What am I?” game! In groups of four you will write down as many animal species as you can think of (the more obscure the better) so you can test the other teams knowledge. Groups will get one point for every correct answer, three points if they ask a question that the other team can’t answer and minus three points if they ask an incorrect question. List the six major nutrient groups: Glossary Nutrient A substance that provides nourishment essential for growth and life Essential nutrient A nutrient that the body cannot manufacture and therefore must ingest Soluble A substance that can dissolve List the benefits of the six major nutrient groups Identify nutrient sources for captive and wild herbivores, omnivores and carnivores Carbohydrates Carbohydrates release energy slowly and are mainly found in green plants There are two types of carbohydrate Complex carbohydrates provide energy and other nutritional benefits (such as fibre or other nutrients)
Starchy foods such as bread, grains, cereal, potatoes, nuts, seeds, vegetables and some fruits Simple carbohydrates provide energy only (often referred to as empty calories) and travel around the body as glucose in the blood
Sugars, fruits and honey The human body cannot break down fibre so it therefore helps bowl function (but some animals can): Whole grains, vegetables, cereals Need both simple and complex but best to get most energy from the complex Protein Proteins are made up of amino acids (the building blocks of tissues) and they are responsible for growth and repair Proteins are structural components of muscles, tendons, the inner parts of bone and hair and antibodies (immunity) There are two types of protein Complete proteins are mainly found in animal products and contain all eight essential amino acids
Fish, meat, eggs, milk and soy beans Incomplete proteins are mainly found in plants and do not contain all eight essential amino acids, therefore animals need a combination of these foods
Beans, lentils, nuts, cereals and grains Protein gets more important if you are more active Fats and Oils Fats and oils have many roles including: insulation, protecting organs (cushioning effect), maintaining membranes and their fluidity, absorbing vitamins and maintaining healthy skin and hair (oils) They are also an effective way to store energy because they are denser than carbohydrates so they are smaller and have more energy per gram There are two types of fat Saturated fats encourage cholesterol build up and are found in animal products

Unsaturated fats reduce cholesterol and are found in plants Cholesterol is what blocks up our arteries but also makes our membranes more fluid like Vitamins Animals need very small quantities of vitamin (mg or even µg) compared to other nutrients (g) Vitamins facilitate and regulate body processes by acting like hormones and forming parts of enzymes There are 13 vitamins and all of them are essential for humans although this may not be true for some animal species These 13 can be broken down into two types Fat soluble vitamins – A, D, E, K Dissolve into fat and are stored in the liver but can be toxic at high levels Water soluble vitamins – B, C Dissolve into water but are not stored in the body, instead they are eliminated in the urine, and therefor do not reach toxic levels Cooking, direct sunlight and not refrigerating can causes foods to lose their water soluble vitamins Minerals Minerals are pure chemical elements that do not change in the body over time Animals need very small quantities of minerals (mg or even µg) compared to other nutrients (g) and they can be extremely toxic in high amounts (copper used to be used in ancient Greek suicide) Minerals have many different jobs but mainly help the body to use energy and to build bones, teeth, and hormones Sodium Maintains cell acidity and fluid balances and aids muscle contraction and nervous function Metabolic bone disease occurs in reptiles when they do not acquire enough calcium so the body starts to take calcium from the bones for other functions. This causes the bones to become very brittle (similar to rickets in humans) Vitamins and minerals are known as micronutrients (very small) Water Water is needed in all biotic functions and is used in most chemical reactions in the body The human body is over 70% water Water also lubricates joints, carries nutrients and waste products, regulates body temperature and allows blood to flow freely The amount of water needed is based on an individual’s calorie intake although other factors such as temperature, health, age and activity levels will influence an individual’s requirements A good source of water is water! But we also get water from foods such as fruit, vegetables and leafy greens Gut loading Feeding live prey nutrient rich foods before they are consumed will ensure the captive animal gains more nutrients and a more balanced diet Identify different methods of digestion in animals Identify different dentition in animals Evaluate the suitability of the dentition and digestion of animals in relation to their diet Recap What are the two types of: Carbohydrates:
Proteins:
Fats and Oils:
Vitamins: Glossary Digestion The breakdown of ingested food into simpler forms to allow absorption Dentition The type, number and arrangement of teeth Rumination The method of digesting cellulose (fibre) using 3-4 stomachs and symbiotic bacteria Plenary My three animals are very fussy eaters but unfortunately last week they lost all of their teeth and digestive organs. Yikes! You need to draw both the dentition and digestive systems of each animal. The first one, Leroy, loves steak, the second, John, will only eat salad and finally Eric eats a Sunday dinner every meal. You must then explain why the dentition and method of digestion are suitable Carnivore Digestive System Has the simplest and shortest digestive tract of the feeding groups Oesophagus The muscular tube that food travels down to get to the stomach

Is very tough and stretchy in carnivores as they swallow large items that can contain bone Stomach Secretes hydrochloric acid to break down the food items into a nutrient soup Secretes digestive enzymes to further break down the nutrients Secretes bile to help fat digestion Manufactures carbohydrates from digested proteins
&
Stores and processes carbohydrates, vitamins and toxin Pancreas Liver Gall bladder Where all the protein and fat is absorbed into the body Small Intestine Large Intestine Where water is reabsorbed out of the waste products Contains friendly bacteria to fight diseases Appendix/Cecum Tiny with no use Carnivore Digestive System Oesophagus The muscular tube that food travels down to get to the stomach Stomach Secretes hydrochloric acid to break down the food items into a nutrient soup Secretes digestive enzymes to further break down the nutrients Secretes bile to help fat digestion Manufactures carbohydrates from digested proteins
&
Stores and processes carbohydrates, vitamins and toxin Pancreas Liver Gall bladder Where all the protein and fat is absorbed into the body

Longer han the carnivores to allow the body time to absorb the carbohydrates Small Intestine Large Intestine Where water is reabsorbed out of the waste products Contains friendly bacteria to fight diseases Appendix/Cecum Very small and only some omnivores use it Herbivore Digestive System The digestive system of a ruminant is broken down into the foregut and hind gut Oesophagus The muscular tube that food travels down to get to the stomach

No sphincter muscle is present to allow regurgitation True Stomach/Abomasum Secretes hydrochloric acid to kill any bacteria and break down the food items into a nutrient soup Secretes digestive enzymes to further break down the nutrients Secretes bile to help fat digestion Manufactures carbohydrates from digested proteins
&
Stores and processes carbohydrates, vitamins and toxin Pancreas Liver Gall bladder Extremely long to allow the body time to absorb the carbohydrates including cellulose (fibre) Small Intestine Large Intestine Where water is reabsorbed out of the waste products Contains friendly bacteria to fight diseases Appendix/Cecum Very large and used to further break down foods (usually grasses) Very similar to the carnivores digestive system but better adapted to digest carbohydrates Saliva contains an enzyme called amylase that starts to break down the carbohydrates in the mouth Salivary Glands Omasum Strains any water out of the food Rumen Full of symbiotic bacteria that secrete enzymes to break down cellulose (fibre) so it is ready to be absorbed, but this does produce methane gas! Reticulum Causes the food to be regurgitated if it is too big or passes it onto the next stomach Saliva contains an enzyme called amylase that starts to break down the carbohydrates in the mouth Salivary Glands Comparison Carnivores and omnivores generally have long digestive tracts, fewer stomachs and don’t use digestive bacteria, whereas herbivores are the opposite. Teeth Incisors: Chisel shaped teeth located at the front of the mouth to snip through vegetation Premolars and molars: Wide serrated or flat teeth located along the each side of the mouth for crushing, sheading and grinding foods Canines: Long sharp teeth in the front corners of the mouth for catching prey Omnivores Have all three types of teeth as it has a varied diet Carnivores Have very few incisors, big canines and serrated premolars and molars for ripping flesh Herbivores Have many long incisors and flat premolars and molars but no canines Explain the importance of a balanced diet Construct feeding plans with special detail to quantity, frequency and timing Describe the effects of life-stage on diet (gender, age, activity, pregnancy, lactation and health) Recap What is special about a carnivore’s digestive system?

What does amylase do?

What are the three types of teeth found in mammals?

Draw and label the dentition of a carnivore, herbivore and omnivore…

How many stomachs do ruminants have and can you name them? Glossary Balanced Having different elements in the correct proportions A set of conditions that must be met in order to be healthy Requirement Plenary Write three multiple choice questions about something you have learned today Why are balanced diets important? Vitamin C in Guinea Pigs Diabetes in Degus Feeding Plans Complete the pie charts, using the feeding plans from the animal house, to estimate the dietary proportions of the six major nutrient groups for one herbivore, one carnivore and one omnivore. Evaluate the two feeding plans by stating their advantages and disadvantages and then comparing their similarities and differences Extension When to feed We must feed animals in accordance with their natural behaviours Nocturnal animals should be fed at night
Diurnal animals should be fed during the daytime
Crepuscular animals should be fed at dawn or dusk Similarly their feeding method should also be taken into account Carnivores should eat 1 – 2 big meals each day
Herbivores should have constant access to food
Omnivores need to be somewhere in the middle Gender Generally males require more calories and calcium as they grow faster and larger than females

Males also need more vitamin B and zinc for testosterone production Age Nutrient requirements generally increase as the animal grows

This increases then levels off when the animal has reached maturity

Minerals such as calcium and phosphorous however have a higher demand during infancy when bones are developing Activity The more physical activity an animal partakes in the greater the energy requirement e.g. a racing greyhound would need more nutrients than a domestic greyhound Pregnancy, lactation and egg production Nutrient intake increases as the mother needs to provide the foetus with the nutrients it needs but also carry around extra mass

The additional nutrient intake is particularly important during the final stages of development Recap What can cause diabetes in degus and how can it be managed?

What is scurvy?

Name three sources of vitamin C for a guinea pig…

What is the main nutritional constituent of an herbivores diet?

How can gender affect an animal’s nutritional intake? Glossary Delivery The method by which food is presented and obtained by the animal Plenary Write three multiple choice questions about something you have learned today Describe different methods to deliver food to animals Food Delivery Complete the table below by identifying the different methods in which animal carers can present food to their animals, e.g. putting hamster food in a bowl. You must then state an advantage and disadvantage for each method. Compare the advantages of feeding animals individually and in groups Feeding as a Group or Individually? Why? It is important to state on your feeding plans the quantity of feed per animal to stop any confusion You could also mention, if group feeding, how you ensured all the animals had the right amount Advantages and Disadvantages of Group and Individual Feeing Design feeding enrichment for an animal at Hartpury College
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