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AP Literature- Poetry Movements

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Natalie Garcia

on 8 May 2014

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Transcript of AP Literature- Poetry Movements

AP Literature- Poetry Movements
Augustans
time period: 17th-18th century, flourished during the reign of Caesar Augustus

defintion: best known for its rhymed, heroic-couplet satire; Augustan poets went back to antiquity for their inspiration; they translated Greek and Roman epics into English using heroic couplets and wrote their own original work based on classical forms

characteristics/key phrases:
-wit, itrony, paradox like the metaphysical poets, but brevity--their poems can be quite long but because they use the heroic couplet so pointedly, their observations are quite pithy (to the point).
-ongoing subject of Augustan poetry is about human frailty; even when using biblical subjects for their plots, the tone mocks human behavior (like in Dryden's poem ""Absalom and Achitophel").

representative poets: John Dryden and Alexander Pope

poem examples: ""Absalom and Achitophel" by Dryden and "The Rape of the Lock" by Pope
Romantic Poetry
time period: Late 1700s-mid 1800s

historical events:
-age of reason or "Enlightenment"
-Industrial Revolution
-French Revolution
natural/emotional/personal themes vs. science, rationalism, reason

defintion: breaks with earlier neoclassical ideas about poetry by specifically emphasizing that poems are written in "the real language of men" and about "common life;"

characteristics/key phrases:
-
individualism-
self-worth and value, deviation from the norm, personal expression
-
sublimity of nature
- nature's power over man (unconquerable), beautiful, spiritual renewal (remember Frankenstein!)
-
transcendence
(going beyond the ordinary details) and the
dream world
are prevalent in poems
-
feeling and emotion
prevails over logic or experience
-
Byronic Hero
- character popular during this time: dark, rebellious, brilliant, handsome

representative poets: William Wordsworth, Percy Shelley, and John Keats

poem examples: "I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud" by Worsdworth, "Ozymandias" by Shelley, and "Ode to a Grecian Urn" by Keats


Also related, the
AMERICAN TRANSCENDENTAL POETS
like
Ralph Waldo Emerson and Walt Whitman
Metaphysical Poetry
French Symbolists
time period: Began in France mid-17th century-beginning of 20th century

defintion: often considered the linnk between Romanticism and Modernism, this movement grew out of opposition to Naturalism and Realism in arts; yearn for transendence in a more sensual direction than Romantic poets

characteristics/key phrases:
-favored dreams, visions, and the associative powers of the imagination in their poetry
-structures and conceits are built upon grand, illogical, intuitive associations
-deal with the crepuscular (dusk and dawn) and with the time between waking and sleep
-synaesthasia- using one sense to describe another
-adept at using words with three to four meanings
-"art for arts sake" movement in which aesthetics and form were above political relevance or reducible message

representative poets: Arthur Rimbaud, Stephane Mallarme, and Charles Pierre Baudelaire

poems: "Harmonies of Evening" by Baudelaire and "The Afternoon of the Faun" by Mallarme

Modernism
time period: 1914-1918

historical events:
-took place during WWI
-Einstein uncovering significant advances in science
-decades of intense technological advances in mass killing of soliders and civilians

defintion: characterized as a revolutionary force, willingness to experiment with new forms

characteristics/key phrases:
-chock full of
allusions
(like H.D's poem "Helen" assumes reader has as working knowledge of the incident that prompts the Trojan War)
-poems reduce human experiences to
fragments
(like e.e. cummings breaking down language down to its component parts)
-influenced by
cubism,
try to see the world from as many points of view as possible (Like in Wallace Steven's "Thirteen Ways of Looking at a Blackbird")
-how an individual relates to his/her environment
-romantic yearning for freedom

representative poets: Wallace Stevens, Williams Carlos Williams, H.D., and Marianne Moore

Poem examples: "Red Wheelbarrow" by Williams, "anyone lived in a pretty how town" by cummings
Harlem Renaissance
time period: created in the first half of the 20th century, after WWI and is tied to the Great Migration and the early phases of the Civil Rights Movement

historical events:
-Great Migration of African Americans from rural spaces (South) to urban spaces (North)
-African Americans were forced to live in the same neighborhoods so Harlen, in NYC, was one of the most famous African American neighborhoods during that time

defintion: poetry associated with the arts of the time: jazz, painting, dance, electrified blues, and the study of folklore; took on many of the same concerns as the modernists

characteristics/key phrases:
-content often directly related to African American concerns and issues
-poems rely on repetitive structure similar to blues lyrics (Dunbar's "Sympathy") or on fragmented structure similar to jazz improvisation (Hughes's "Montage of a Dream Deferred")
-some poets combined European forms like the sonnet with a content and tone more related to African American concerns (McKay's "If We Must Die")

representative poets: Paul Lawrence Dunbar, Claude McKay, Langston Hughes, and Countee Cullen

poem examples: ""Fredrick Douglass" by Dunbar, "If We Must Die" by McKay, and "I, Too, Sing America" by Hughes
Literary Movement
Confessional Poets
Postmodernism
The Beats
New York School of Poets
Black Arts Movement
a grouping of writers who share similar aims, similar years of publication, and similar characteristics in their works
time period: 17th century (1600-1700)

historical events: Louis XIV became king of France at age 4

defintion: breaks with earlier Renaissance ideas about romatic poetry (like putting the beloved on a pedastool), metaphysical poets exhibit introsepctive meditations on love, death, God, and human frailty; much more realistic about sexual relationships (like John Donne)

characteristics/key phrases:
-look for
wit, irony, and paradox
-- wit is often seen in the pairing of dissimilar objects into a clever
conceit
(ex. Donne's "A Velediction Forbidding Mourning" uses astronomy and math to illustrate his deep love for his wife, or his poem "The Flea" compares a flea bite to marriage)
-elaborate stylistic maneuvers (ornametnal conceits, dazzling rhymes)

representative poets: John Donne, George Herbert, and Andrew Marvell

poem examples: "The Flea" by Donne, "Easter Wings" by Herbert, and "To His Coy Mistress" by Marvell
time period: Created in the second half of the 20th century

historical events:
-Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle, one cannot know both the speed and the location of an object simultaneously, which introduces a note of chance or chaos into scientific inquiry
-Andy Warhol's pop culture art

defintion: academics still debate giving the label "postmodernist" to poets writing as an extension of the modernists

characteristics/key phrases:
-parody, irony, and narrative instability often inform tone
-allusions are just as likely to be made to popular culture as they are to classical learning
-strictly binary concepts (hot and cold, black and white, etc.) often collapse; ideas that spread across a spetrum vs. into a box
-there is no real center; the internet is a perfect example of postmodern invention
-the surface is often more interesting to postmodern artists than any ideas of depth

representative poets: see The Beats, the Confessional Poets, the Black Arts Movement, the Black Mountain School, and the New York School of Poets

Poem examples: see The Beats, the Confessional Poets, the Black Arts Movement, the Black Mountain School, and the New York School of Poets

time period: post- WWII (1948-1963)


defintion: a group of American writers and artists popular in the 1950s and 1960s; influenced by Eastern philosophy and religion and known for their use of nontraditional forms and their rejection of conventional values; many of the original group of poets from Columbia University or dropouts, poets used different settings to practice their art in cities like NYC, SF, and Mexico City

characteristics/key phrases:
-moved by jazz improvisation and Buddhist ideas of impermanence
-deep connection to nature
-wrote in a language of the street about previously forbidden topics
-more bold and straightforward
-"First thought best thought" idea of uninhibited sharing of thoughts

representative poets: Lawrence Ferlinghetti, Allen Ginsberg, and Gregory Corso

poem examples: "A Coney Island Mind," by Ferlinghetti, "Howl" by Ginsberg, and "Marriage" by Corso
time period: 1950s and 1960s

historical events: post WWII


defintion: poetry of personality, took pronouns I, me, and my seriously and explored intimate content in their poetry (love affairs, suicidal thoughts, fears of failure, etc.)

characteristics/key phrases:
-first person point of view
-straightforward and explicit language
-prosody

representative poets: John Berryman, Robert Lowell, Anne Sexton, and Sylvia Plath

Poem examples: "Dream Song 1" by Berryman, "Skunk Hour" by Lowell, "Wanting to Die" by Sexton, and "Daddy" by Plath
time period: 1950s to 1960s

historical events: see postmodernism


defintion: poets saw themselves as fellow travelers of the abstract expressionist school of painters; their aesthetic mode overlapped with Beat spontaneity and with confessional-poet frankness, but was much more ironic; concerned more with surreal combination of high art and popular art allusions

characteristics/key phrases:
-ekphrastic mode (a mode based on putting visual art into words)
-juxtaposing uncommon objects

representative poets: Barbara Guest, Kenneth Koch, Frank O'Hara, and John Ashbery

poem examples: ""The Blue Stairs," by Guest, "One Train May Hide Another" by Koch, ""In Memory of My Feelings" by O'Hara, and "The Painter" by
Ashbery
time period: 1965-1975

historical events:
-the height of the Civil Rights Movement
-assassination of Malcolm X
-Black Panthers in Oakland

defintion: often associated with the Black Power movement, poets of this time period wrote poems that were aggressive/powerful, politically charged, and challenged the white establishment

characteristics/key phrases:
-strong/aggressive diction
-reference to disgust of politics of the time period
-promote individuality and importance of black arts

representative poets: Gwendolyn Brooks, Amiri Baraka, Sonia Sanchez, and Ntozake Shange

poem examples: "We Real Cool" by Brooks, "Black Art," by Baraka, "Malcolm" by Sanchez, and "For Colored Girls Who Have Considered Suicide When the Rainbow is Enuf" by Shange
Symbolists-Influenced Poets Who Wrote in English
time period: Began in France mid-17th century-beginning of 20th century

historical events:
-Empiricism, such as practiced by President Roosevelt, threatened to oncover all of the world's secrets
-widespread capitalism made man a "cog" in the machinery of a society focused on materialism


defintion: see French symoblists

characteristics/key phrases: see French symoblists

representative poets: Oscar Wilde, W.B. Yeats, Arthur Symons, and T.S. Eliot

Poem examples: ""Leda and the Swan" and "Towards the Break of Day" by Yeats, "The Road Not Taken" by Robert Frost, and "The Song of J. Alfred Prufrock" by Elliot
The End


Good luck on the test!
Black Mountain Poets
time period: second half of 20th century

historical events: see postmodernists


defintion: writers taught in the same place, Black Mountain College in Black Mountain, North Carolina, shared an interest in process over product

characteristics/key phrases:
-their characteristics vary: Olsen's poems spill across the page, Creely's poems compresses lines into tight corners, and Levertov often tackles political issues head-on

representative poets: Charles Olsen, Denise Levertov, and Robert Creely

Poem examples:
"The Maximus Poems" by Olson, "The Mutes" by Levertov, and "Age" by Creeley
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