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Person-Centered Approach To Groups

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on 1 April 2013

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Transcript of Person-Centered Approach To Groups

Dena Paniccia
Miladys Gonzalez
Jaimie VanHoose
Shekeena Rosier Person-Centered Approach History and Development Developed by Carl Rogers
Started off as non directive counseling
Challenged the popular belief that therapist was expert and client as passive Therapist's realness and empathy are key
Therapeutic relationship is emphasized rather than any one technique
Minimal direction from the facilitator
Trust in the clients ability to move forward
Understand and respect clients at a deep level Person-Centered Basic Principals Trust in the group process
Therapeutic conditions for growth
Genuineness
Unconditional positive regard and acceptance
Empathy Key Concepts Class Discussion 1. What populations do you think person-centered therapy works well with?
2. Is there a population you think person-centered therapy would not work well with?
3. Anything else? Gibbard, I., & Hanley, T. (2008). A five-year evaluation of the effectiveness of person-centred counselling in routine clinical practice in primary care. Counselling & Psychotherapy Research, 8(4), 215-222. Aim: study the effectiveness of PCT
The primary care counseling service involved in this research only offers PCT & only counselors whose approach was PCT were employed
Measure: Clinical Outcome in Routine Evaluation measure (CORE-OM)
self-report questionnaire; 34 items on 5 point scale 0-4 (higher the score, higher the distress)
administered during the 1st & last session (later, added time of referral to see changes during wait-time)
exit questionnaires were also administered
Sample size n=1098, presenting with anxiety, depression...
Results: 76% scored reliably improved after therapy
the effect of therapy was much greater than the effect of waiting for therapy
697 clients who completed the pre & post CORE-OMs, effect size of 1.2=large effect on clients mood Implications for group leaders Group facilitator does their best to be a member rather than assuming the role of an expert
Listening in a sensitive way, accepting, understanding, respecting, reflecting, clarifying, summarizing, responding....
Engaging others in the group
Go with the flow of the group (non-directive)
Hopefulness for clients

A session might start with "Welcome. We have set aside time today to meet in group. I'm not sure what we will end up talking or thinking about, but I'm looking forward to seeing how it unfolds." Implications for group members References Corey, G. (2012). Theory & practice of group counseling, 8th ed. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning.
Gaylin, N. L. (2008). Person-Centered Family Therapy: Old wine in new bottles. Person-Centered & Experiential Psychotherapies, 7(4), 235-244.
Gibbard, I., & Hanley, T. (2008). A five-year evaluation of the effectiveness of person-centered counseling in routine clinical practice in primary care. Counseling & Psychotherapy Research, 8(4), 215-222.
Humboldt, S., Leal, . (2012). Person-Centered therapy and older adult's self-esteem: A pilot study with follow up. Studies in Sociology of Science, 3(4), 1-10. doi: 10.3968/j.sss.1923018420120304.753
Kim, S. (2010). A Story of a Healing Relationship: The Person-Centered Approach in Expressive Arts Therapy. Journal of Creativity in Mental Health, 5, 93-98. doi:10.1080/15401381003627350
Kirschenbaum, H., & Jourdan, A. (2005). The current status of carl rogers and the person-centered approach. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 42(1), 37-51. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-3204.42.1.37
Payne, A., Liebling-Kalifani, H., & Joseph, S. (2007). Client-centred group therapy for survivors of interpersonal trauma: a pilot investigation. Counselling & Psychotherapy Research, 7(2), 100-105. Person-Centered Approach with
Carl Rogers & Gloria STATUS OF THE PERSON CENTERED APPROACH

Kirschenbaum, H., & Jourdan, A. (2005). The current status of carl rogers and the person-centered approach. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 42(1), 37-51. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-3204.42.1.37

• Currently there are more than 200 organizations and training centers located around the world dedicated to researching and applying the person centered approach.
• Research in the USA diminished in Rogers latest years (Lietaer, 1990) and his professional attention turned elsewhere, research on person centered increased in Europe and other nations.
• From Jan 1987-Sep 2004, 141 books, 174 book chapters, and 462 journal articles appeared on Carl Roger’s Person Centered Approach. More books were written in the 17 years after his death than in the prior 40 years.
• In one study of 149 clients, it was determined that the use of the person centered approach resulted in significant improvement. (This approach has been extensively tested worldwide with the same positive results).
• These studies taken together suggest that those therapists who use the person centered approach in both individual and in groups are effective. (Empathy-Genuine etc).
• Conclusion: It is the therapist’s empathy, acceptance and genuineness that allow clients to feel safe enough to enter into the therapeutic tested effective process of the person centered approach that is why it is still used worldwide and it is why we are using it in this class, because it is proven effective A Story of a Healing Relationship: The Person-Centered Approach in Expressive Arts Therapy

Kim, S. (2010). A Story of a Healing Relationship: The Person-Centered Approach in Expressive Arts Therapy. Journal of Creativity in Mental Health, 5, 93-98. doi:10.1080/15401381003627350 > This article presents a story of a healing relationship using Roger's person-centered approach in expressive art therapy. The therapist, Sunhee Kim, was a board-certified art therapist. She used Natalie Roger's, Carl Roger's daughter, approach of expressive art therapy. She became intrigued by Carl Roger's work. Sunhee Kim facilitated a group which Mrs. H, a Korean-American woman was a member of this group. The therapist "guided the group to imaginary places where they could feel comfortable and relaxed" (Kim, 2010, p.95). After Mrs. H's first painting, the therapist asked is what she wanted to share about her painting. When Mrs. H stated that she did not know what to say the therapist showed unconditional positive regard and acceptance. The therapist told Mrs. H she owned the painting and her writing. She also made it known to Mrs. H and the other group members that she would accept and respect both their visual and written expression. Mrs. H became more open to her feelings through her painting. "Later on, her painting series became her journal where she revealed her grief and despair over the death of her husband followed by the death of her son" (Kim, 2010, p.95). Mrs. H was once unable to talk about her art or her feelings but because of the therapist's genuineness she was able to foster therapeutic conditions for growth. Person-Centered Therapy and Older Adult's Self-Esteem: A Pilot Study with Follow-Up Objective: To increase self esteem of older adults between the ages of 65 and 82 yrs old using person centered therapy in Portugal.
Method: 40 people were involved in PCT individual sessions for 8 weeks to determine if PCT could reduce the difference between ideal and real self in older adults. They were compared to a control group of 41 people who were not receiving this therapy.
Pre and post tests using a Likert scale were given to determine results.
Participants: Predominately women (60.5%) int he work field (61.7%) who graduated high school (38.3%) in a relationship/marriage who preceived themselves in good health. All participants continued throughout study.
Conclusion: The use of PCT in older adults was expected to increase the ideal of the real self in therapy. In contrast, it is proven to decrease the difference of the ideal self and real self by decreasing expectations of ideal self. There was little change int he control group.
Limitations: small sample size, potential of responding for socially desirable response and clinical relevance is not determined LOGIC MODEL Payne, A., Liebling-Kalifani, H., & Joseph, S. (2007). Client-centred group therapy for survivors of interpersonal trauma: a pilot investigation. Counselling & Psychotherapy Research, 7(2), 100-105. Method: Pre-Post design to test the efficacy of client-centered group therapy
Participants: 6 trauma survivors who suffered from complex PTSD; been abused as children and/or been in an abusive adult relationship
Procedure: clients attended anywhere from 15-5 sessions aimed to have the participant feel valued, respected, and able to share experiences, and for facilitators to remain consistent with Rogers CCT
Measures: Changes in outlook questionnaire; clinical outcomes in routine evaluation; the impact of event scale; the barrett-lennard relationship inventory-other toward self
Results: Members who perceived that there was empathetic listening benefited from the group and showed greater positive changes, participants varied widely in whether they perceived the group as providing the core conditions, evaluation of client-centered groups needs to identify whether they are perceived as such by participants
limitations: it set out to provide participants with client-centered learning experiences and did not succeed due to participants' lack of perception of unconditionality, which is the key healing ingredient theoretically according to Rogers, 1959 Members move from: 1. Playing roles to expressing themselves directly
2. Relatively closed to experience to becoming more open to outside reality
3. Out of contact with internal and subjective experiences to becoming aware of it
4. Looking for answers outside themselves to a willingness to direct their own lives from within
5. Lacking trust and being somewhat closed and fearful in interpersonal relationships to being more open and expressive with others
Dena Miladys Jaimie
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