Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM


Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.


Copy of Psychology Unit 3: AoS2: Memory

Reference: Grivas, J., Letch, N., Down, R., & Carter, L. (2010). Psychology: VCE Units 3 & 4, (4th Ed.) Melbourne: MacMillian Education. Produced for Mallacoota P-12 College V.C.E Unit 3 & 4 students who have purchased the above book

Sarah Mackenzie

on 24 May 2016

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Copy of Psychology Unit 3: AoS2: Memory

Psychology Unit 3: The Conscious Self
Area of Study 2: Memory

Reference: Grivas, J., Letch, N., Down, R., & Carter, L. (2010). Psychology: VCE Units 3 & 4, (4th Ed.) Melbourne: MacMillian Education. Produced for Mallacoota P-12 College V.C.E Unit 3 & 4 students who have purchased the above book
Memory consists of a collection of complete interconnected systems, each of which serves a different purpose and operates in a very differ
nt way.

We DO NOT have 'a memory' rather have memory systems.

MINDMAP - memory
Memory Test - Together

Lumosity - Memory and cognition training
Pg 287 - Read as class.
Class discussion
L.A. 6.1 Q1,2,3
Defining Memory
Human Memory is defined as the storage and retrieval of information acquired through learning
Encoding is the process of converting raw sensory information into a usable form so it can be stored in memory
Storage is the retention of information over time
Retrieval is the process of locating and recovering stored information from memory so that we are consciously aware of it
Can be effortful (like now)
OR automatic
1960's Psychologists used the cognitive approach...termed the informational processing model...THINK computers.

Home Learning
UN pg 292 L.A. 6.2 Q1,2 Ext 3
Models for explaining human memory
Characteristics of Memory
Atkinson-Shiffrin multi-store model
No single model of memory has been shown to capture all aspects of human memory.
Notebook - VCAA determines we need to know 3 of these:
- Atkinson-Shiffrin's (1968) multi-store model
- Baddeley and Hitch's (1974) model of working memory
- Craik and Lockhart's (1972) level of processing framework
Levels of processing or depth are hard to define specifically and to measure

Despite this problem the idea of better processing and therefore better storage is supported widely by research
The process of doing something so that information can be retained in memory and then retrieved when required, can be verbal, vocal, non-verbal, sub-vocal, mental imagry etc.

Maintenance rehearsal:
Involves simple, rote repetition of information being remembered can be retained. Going over and over it!
Needs to be attended to consciously – not just meaningless repetition

Elaborative rehearsal:
Involves the process of linking new information in a meaningful way with information already stored in long term memory. More active and more effective, ensures that information is encoded well.

Self reference effect:
Involves making new information personal and meaningful to you
Improving STM Duration: VCAA
Sperling’s research
The entry area of memory, all stimuli which bombard our senses are retained in their original form for a very brief time in memory sub systems called sensory registers.

There is probably a sensory register for each sense. This system retains an unbelievable amount of information.
s held and processed through
3 levels
of memory as it is
encoded, stored and retrieved

Sensory – Short Term – Long Term

This model has structural features that do not vary , E.g. The three levels of memory

Also Control processes that will differ between people, E.g. deciding what type of rehearsal to use, or what search strategy to employ
Serial Position Effect:
Evidence for separate STM & LTM
Recall tends to be best for items at the end and the beginning and worst for those in the middle. Retention as a U shaped curve.

– superior recall for items at the beginning of a list
– superior recall for items at the end of a list

WHY? – Items at end still in STM so remembered well, Items at start have been transferred to LTM. Middle to late to be in STM to early to be in LTM without rehearsal
Read example on pg. 319
Going to party….
phonological loop stores the directions
Visio spatial sketchpad visualise route
Central executive directs the Episodic buffer to combine info from storage branches
Episodic buffer also adds info from LTM
Episodic buffer used as the mental ‘workbench’ to make adjustments
Information in LTM is organized systematically in the form of overlapping networks of connected units (or nodes) of information that are interconnected and interrelated by meaningful links.
Hierarchically structured.

When we search memory we start by searching a general area, we then follow the links to find the specific information we need. The search spreads out.
Semantic Network Theory
Procedural – Memory of how to do something, actions and skills, can be physical or intellectual (knowing how) learned by conditioning and practice

Declarative – Memory of specific facts or events (knowing that)
Episodic – Memory of life events, autobiographical (episodes)
Semantic – Information we have about the world. Areas of expertise, academic knowledge, important places, meaning of words, famous people or events etc. Facts that do not rely on specific time or place.
Atkinson-Shiffrin’s multi-store model of memory - Long Term Memory
- Controls attention
- Integrates info from the two storage sub systems does the ‘working out’
- The seat of consciousness
- Coordinates the flow of information b/w working memory system and LTM
- Manipulates information
- Working component

Almost everything you think, feel, or do in NWC is controlled by Central executative
Alan Baddeley and Graham Hitch’s (1974) model of working memory
The grouping or packing of bits of information into larger bits or units that can be remembered as single units

Chunking expands short term memory. Chunks can be numbers, images, words, abbreviations etc.
Eg. Of chunking telephone numbers. 0407 655 234
Capacity of STM is still 7, but now its 7 bits or chunks of information
Improving STM capacity
Capacity - Displacement
Also referred to as Working Memory
Helps store info while you work on it.

Memory system with limited storage capacity, info is stored for a short period unless renewed.

Duration: 18 – 20 seconds
Capacity: 5 – 9 pieces of information

Information is lost though decay (fading) or displacement (being pushed out by new)
Atkinson-Shiffrin’s multi-store model of memory
- Short Term Memory

Echoic Memory – Auditory sensory memory. Echoic sounds like echo. Echoic memory stores sounds for 3 to 4 seconds

Eg. When you say “what”? but then answer the question before it is repeated. You have retrieved this information form echoic memory

Important role in language comprehension, enables storage of all sounds that make a word so the word can be processed as a whole

Com…. puter, Com…unism, Com….pete

Iconic Memory: Visual sensory memory. Images only last in iconic memory for about one third (0.3) of a second. Long enough for the identification of the stimulus to begin.

Atkinson-Shiffrin’s multi-store model of memory - Sensory Memory
Structural features
– permanent built in features of memory that do not change
Eg. Three levels of memory each with specific capacity and duration

Control processes
– selected by the individual may vary across situations
Eg. Attention, rehearsal, retreival
Dispute the distinct sub system model (Ak&Sh)

Instead propose that the level or depth of processing determines storage in LTM

More meaning – deeper processing – better storage

Shallow encoding, basic features, repeating lists etc – bad storage
Levels of processing - Craik and Lockhart (1972)
Besides whenever I learn something new it pushes something old out of my brain…..Remember when I took that home wine making course and I forgot how to drive.
Funny Revision Technique
Current theory suggests that while this model is generally good it lacks some detail
STM – a number of separate interacting components not a single store
Rehearsal does not guarantee retention
LTM – 3 distinct sub systems, memory not retrieved but reconstructed
The Atkinson-shiffrin multi-store model represents memory as consisting of 3 distingishable components called sensory register, short term store and long term store.
Biological basis of Memory
Atkinson and Shiffrin identified characteristics of Sensory Memory, Short Term Memory (STM) and Long Term Memory (LTM). This was an important

These are now believed to be much more complex systems that first stipulated.
Answer in note books:
What would happen if we remember everything that entered our sensory memory?
In class
pg 296 L.A. 6.4 On board/Notebooks
In class activity pg 297
To experience....
Multi Store Memory Revision
UN home learning
pg 299 L.A. 6.5 Q 1-7 (research methods)
This is very similar to section 3 of your exam!
UN Home learning
pg 295 L.A. 6.3 Q 1,2,3,4 Ext 6,7
Reading pg 301 bottom...For example, if some... (cowan and others 2000)
If interested read box 6.6 - Deja vu
VCSS Sensory Memory (write notebooks)
- This is the duration.....what is the capacity?

Summary Handout
UN home learning
pg 304 L.A. 6.6 Q 1,2,3,4, 6 Ext 5,7,8,
18-20 seconds
Read in clas. Pg 304 best-known...
7 +-2

Very limited storage.
Note Books STM capacity experiment
(Simon Turn off screen
Trial 1: 2,5,6,
Trial 2: 4,6,9,0,1,
Trial 3: 3,6,8,1,0,3,7
Trial 4: 5,7,1,5,3,9,6,3,9
Trial 5: 9,4,3,1,7,6,5,3,9,2,4,8,

Table (merge results) students Mean, Medium, Mode
UN home learning. Pg 308 L.A. 6.8 Dot points 1,2,4,5,6
Information is lost through decay (not being used) and displacement (pushed out)
STM as working memory
Many Psychologists
now use the term Working Memory rather than STM.
Working memory is used to emphasize the active part of our memory where information is consciously aware of and actively worked on.
Class activity (in your head)

17+12+13+2= ? (hand up when you have answer)

Close your eyes and listen to this sentence

Mr. Berry is the best teacher in the world, he is a champion of learning and a murial of his handsome face should be placed everywhere? Who was the sentence about?
UN Learning Activity
pg 307 L.A 6.7 Qns 1,2,3,4, 6, 7 Ext 5, 8
Notebooks: Capacity Experiment Revised
Turn comp off Simon
Trial 1: 256
Trial 2: 46, 901
Trial 3: 368, 103, 7
Trial 4: 571,539,639
Trial 5: 943,176,539,248,
Table (merge results) students Mean, Medium, Mode
In Class. Ruby Please Leave!
Mini-Experiment on self referencing effect
L.A. 6.10
Research into Levels of processing
Applying this for your exams
In class 1c and 2d
UN Home Learning
pg 314 L.A. 6.11 Q 1,2,5,6abcd, Ext 3,4,6e,f
A summary of all three models of memory
Baddeley and Hitch's (1974 - ongoing)
model of working memory describes the structure and function of working memory in terms of 3 components called:
- Phonological Loop
- Visuo-spatial sketchpad
- Central Executative
Eg. Think of your house. How many windows does it have?
You most likely imagined your house (visuo-spatial sketchpad), counted the windows verbally (phonological loop) and you needed a strategy, where to start) (central executive)
Phonological Loop
- Also called verbal working memory.
- Temporally stores info as verbal speech
- Hold onto it using sub-vocal maintenance rehearsal
- Duration limit of 2 seconds
Mini Exp. Remember these 7 numbers in your head
Hands up if you were saying them over and over in your head. - you were using your phonological loop!
Visuo-spatial sketchpad
- Also called visual working memory
- Stores a limited amount of visual and spatial information for a brief period of time
- Duration around 2 seconds
- Responsible for visual location of objects in space.
According to Baddeley and Hitch this is our mental workspace for storing AND manipulating visual/spatial information.
Mini Exp pg 317 Following task...
I will read something out and I want to to try to complete the task
Did some of us find that harder than others? Why?
The capacity of both components and independent of one another reaching the limits of 'filling up' one component does not effect the other component.

In class: Read exp top of pg 318
Central Executive
Issues with working model
According to Baddeley (2009) a mojour problem with the theory is that it does not explain how working memory links with LTM.

Baddeley added a 4th component called episodic buffer.
Episodic Buffer
It is a sub-system of working memory that enables it to interact with different components of Working Memory to interact with LTM.
- It connects other sub systems with each other, and with LTM
A Concert you've been to example.....
What did we learn last lesson?
What are we learning today?
What are we learning this week?
Home learning discussion.
Lesson Goals.

Video summary
Video Summary
Developments in Long Term Memory
Def: Long term memory (LTM) is the relative permanent memory system that holds vast amounts of information for a long time, possibly indefinitely.
Differs from STM in the following ways
- STM is active (we are consciously aware of what information it holds / LTM is inactive (not aware of it)
- We use retrieval cues (much like google when searching LTM. Very efficient when cues are provided)
- Once we have finished using it in STM/Working memory it is tsf back to LTM
- How info is stored. STM is stored in physical qualities (what we saw, did, heard) LTM mostly stores information semantically (in terms of meaning)
- LTM stores things (potentially) for ever. Lost memories are because we are unable to retrieve it for some reason. STM lost info is lost forever.
Organisation of LTM
There are different types of LTM (types or stores or subsystems)
- Procedural (or implicit) Memory
: Actions and skills learn
- Declarative (or explicit) Memory
; specific events or facts
which has 2 subsystems:
Episodic Memory
(personal experience)
Semantic Memory
(information about the world)
Notebooks: Write down a procedural memory, and 2 Declarative memories (one episodic and one semantic
Traffic Light it up!
Some Psy have argued that the distinction b/w semantic and episodic is not as clear-cut as suggested.

Endel Tulving (1983) argued that semantic and episodic often work together in forming mew memories. The memory that forms has episodic AND semantic information.
Eg Simon - Riding a bike.
UN home learning
pg 325 L.A. 6.16 Q 1, 2, 3 Exr 4, 5
In class (pairs) poster
pg 326 L.A. 6.17 Q1
Class discussion
Q2,3 and L.A. 6.18
One of LTM's most distinguishing feature is its organisation.

Eg. Recall yesterday. Discuss

Read Research exp pg 326 starting with Evidence of information in LTM.... - 327

In Class Mini Exp (if time)
pg 328 L.A. 6.20 1-3

UN home learning (SECTION C - Exam practice)
pg 327, L.A. 6.19 Q 1-10
How does this theory relate to encoding?
Lets make our own
Read Box 6.9
UN home learning
pg 330 L.A. 6.21 Q 1,2abc Ext Q2d,3,4

In class (if time)
Posters L.A. 6.22
The findings of numerous research studies on the Serial Position Effect have not only enabled psychologists to confidently identify LTM and STM/Working memory as differnt components, but also describe them as interactive.

Commercials at the start and end of a break cost more..why?
UN home learning
pg 333 L.A. Q 1, Ext 2,3
In class Q3d
The soma or cell body
is the structure that determines whether the neuron will be activated and thus transmit (send) messages to other neurons.

A dendrite
(from the Greek work meaning 'tree') is a short, thin, widely branching nerve fibre that is specialised to detect and receive neural information.

An axon
is a single, tube like, fluid-filled extension that transmits messages from the soma to other cells in the body including other neurons, muscles, organs and glands. Encased in a white fatty substance that helps speed un transmission called myelin sheath.

At the end of each axon are branches called
axon terminals.
Each axon terminal has a small knob-like swelling at the tip of it called a terminal button / synaptic knob

synaptic knob
is a small structure like a sac that stores chemicals called neurotransmitters which assist in the transmission neural information from one neuron to another
100 billion neurons
10,000 connections for each neuron
The gap between neurons is called the synapse.

 When the neural impulse reaches the end of each axon, the terminal buttons
releases chemicals called neurotransmitters

A neurotransmitter is a chemical substance that is manufactured by the neuron. It contains ions that travel across the synapse to the receptors on the dendrites of the receiving neuron

Sometime the neurotransmitter triggers or activates a neural impulse on the connecting neuron. At other times, the neurotransmitter inhibits or prevents the connecting neuron from firing

When the neurotransmitter has done its job it is either taken back by the terminal buttons or disposed off.
Synaptic transmission
It is well established that memories are not stored in any one location rather they are sorted through out the brain and linked with neural tracts or pathways - described as memory circuits.

Remembering the types of neruons
Sensory (feeling) neurons – afferent
Motor (Moving) neurons – efferent
Interneurons – connecting (enable the spinal reflex, sensory communicate with motor) - These are the ones that form memories
Neurons –building blocks of the Nervous System
The Parts of a Neuron
An Action Potential
Typical memory loss includes
Words and names
Written and verbal directions
Stories, TV, Movies, Books
Semantic memory decline
Procedural memories

Personality changes can also occur

There are a number of memory defects

Brain trauma – damage inflicted through injury interferes with functioning
E.g. Brain injury, stroke, drug abuse etc

Neurodegenerative disease – decline in structure and function of neurons
E.g. Alzheimer's disease

Amnesia – Loss of memory, partial or complete, temporary or permanent
After retrieval from LTM memories need to be reconsolidated before being placed back in LTM

Evidence from rats injected with drugs when recalling previously consolidated LTM’s became unable to recall what they had previously demonstrated knowledge of.

So....it seems we are constantly modifying (re-encoding) / reconsolidating memories
Rats learned to run a maze to find a food reward
4 groups
A – ECT immediately
B – ECT 20 seconds after
C – ECT 30 minutes after
D – ECT 60 minutes after
Consolidation – Rats in a maze
Head injury often results in memory loss for a period preceding the injury

ECT – loss of previous 30mins

Neural changes are not allowed to occur or are disrupted by injury
The Medial Temporal Lobe
Neural basis for memory formation
Synapse strength can increase in 3 ways

Release extra neurotransmitter
Increase number of receptor sites
Growth of new synapses
Long Term Potentiation
Not necessarily inevitable,
research has supported the view that some natural decline is normal
, amount of decline depends on, how measured

motivation to remember (old people may not give a shit)
, self confidence, nervous system slowing are possible explanations for the decline.
Older people Do take longer to learn new info
STM – depends on the task, easy one part tasks ok, tasks that require divided attention not so good. Recall down, Recognition same

LTM - Episodic down, Procedural same, Semantic Same
Memory decline over the lifespan
Show high levels of the protein Amyloid
Not usually in the brain
Highly toxic – causes cell death
Causes the development of the plaques and tangles
Brains also have a massive lack of acetylcholine (an important neurotransmitter)

Why are you in my brain amyloid??? She likes to play twister and tangle things up. Doesn’t brush her teeth and leaves Plaque everywhere! She drinks all the acetylcholine mouthwash
Alzheimer’s Disease – Post-mortem
The most common form of dementia
Neurodegenerative disease that causes wide spread cell death
Causes decline in
all aspects of cognitive function
Post-mortems reveal deposits of plaque along the damaged synapses
These plaques and tangles
effect neural transmission
Alzheimer’s Disease
Umbrella of neurodegenerative diseases, symptoms include:
Loss of mental capacity
Loss of memory – interfering severely with the ability to function independently
Develops progressively

Anterograde Amnesia
Can’t make new Long Term memories
events that occur after the injury – hippocampus damage common
Cannot transfer information from STM to LTM

Korsakoffs syndrome
Caused by chronic alcoholism
Bad diet – lack of thiamine (vitamin B)
Sometimes confabulate – make up stories to fill in the gaps in memory
Research evidence suggests that new information transferred from STM (or working memory) to LTM requires a period of time for a process of consolidation to occur in order for it to be encoded and permanently stored.

Physiological changes (LTP and Axon growth) in brain cells occur when something is being learned and during a period of time immediately after the learning process has been completed

If memory is disrupted during the period of consolidation memory loss will occur

This process takes about 30 minutes
Hippocampus and Medial Temporal Lobe involved

It is aided by REM sleep

Think of wet concrete
Consolidation theory
Evidence that the hippocampus and temporal lobe have a role in memory formation, but not storage or retrieval

Evidence that LTM is most definitely a distinct sub system of memory (STM fine)
The Hippocampus & Medial Temporal Lobe – damage and memory
Henry Molaison
Severe epilepsy
Radical surgery removes hippocampus and parts of the medial temporal lobe
Success in preventing seizures
Left with permanent anterograde amnesia (Cant form new LTM’s)
Other mental abilities and STM fine
The Temporal Lobe
The Hippocampus
New memories (either short or long term) are NOT stored in individual synapses but in the pattern of thousands of new interrelated connections

Looking for memories in a single nerve cell or synapse is a dead end

We know that there is a molecular basis to memory formation, what we do not know is exactly how thousands of these new connections hold our memories.
The Role of the neuron in memory formation
Connect those neurons
The physical basis of memory formation
100,000 Australians effected
1 in 25 over 60
1 in 8 over 80
No simple diagnostic test – really only know for sure when post-mortem conducted
Symptoms are different for each person further complicating diagnosis
A – all rats forgot completely
B – partial recall
C – partial recall (better than B)
D – total recall

Consolidation seems complete after about 1 hour
- Mediation of fear – sympathetic arousal
- Seizures involving the amygdala involve intense fear
- Damage leaves a person unable to learn a fear response through classical conditioning
- Involved in remembering the emotional significance of an event
- Can effect the consolidation of memory – stimulation better recall, retardation poorer recall
Deep within the temporal lobe- the amygdala
The hippo on campus lives on memory lane...
..the hippos live in partner is Amygdala (a African queen)
Retrograde Amnesia
(think Retro - past amnesia)
Cant remember old information
Events before the injury lost
Usually temporary and caused by a blow to the head
Memory of events immediately preceding the injury are permanently lost (interruption or consolidation)
Long Term Poteniation - Explicit LTM
Long Term Memory
Short Term Memory
Long Term Poteniation – Explicit STM
pg 336 Read Kandel (2001) According to....
- dont need to know Kandel, just memory process
The Amygdala
Read (new section) pg 289-290
hippocampus has a crucial role in forming or encoding new declarative explicit memories
(semantic and episodic) but not in forming or retrieving implicit procedural memories.
Given that damage does not affect short-term storage or working memory in any significant way, this provides evidence that STM (or working memory)is different from LTM and that the hippocampus is not involved in short-term storage.
It is believed that the hippocampus does not store long-term memories. Instead, the hippocampus transfers it to other cortical areas for long-term storage.
The hippocampus is widely described as our ‘memoryformation area’, the place where our brain temporarily holds and processes components of the information to be remembered
People and animals with amygdala damage show reduced ability to acquire conditioned (learned) emotional responses and to interpret or express a variety of emotions.
UN home learning (NEW electronic section)
pg 291 L.A. 7.4 Q1, Ext Q2,3, 6
pg 294 L.A. 7.5 Q 1, 2, 3, Ext 5,7
Hippocampus damage
Evidence in support of consolidation comes
from studies of people who have experienced brain trauma resulting in memory loss; for example,after being knocked unconscious as a result of an accident, after acquiring certain diseases affecting the brain (such as encephalitis) or after receiving electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
UN home learning
pg 342 L.A 6.28 Q 1, 2, 3
ECT - Shock therapy
Memory defects
The Borne Identity
pg 327 L.A. 6.32
Watch both of these movies, (if you have time)
UN home learning
pg 347 L.A. 6.31 Q 1, 2, 3, 5, Ext 4
In class Q 6
- It develops over a number of years (gradually)
- It is NOT part of the normal aging process
- When symptoms are caused by neurodegenerative factors they are usually irreversible.
- Alzehimer's disease accounts for 50%-70% of dementia cases
UN home learning
L.A. 6.33 Q 1,2 Ext 3
Effect of age on STM
Confidence scales (not necessarily poorer memory)
Recognition VS free recall over time
Interestingly recognition does not drop as much as free recall
IN note books Home Learning
L.A. 6.34 Q1,2, Ext 3
Note confidence drops in the older age group...
again this is NOT measuring memory, just confidence to recall
Forgetting refers to the inability to retrieve previously stored information.
Can we all think of a time in the last week where we forgot something?

Mind map - what do we know about forgetting?
The forgetting curve
In 1885, Hermann Ebbinghaus scientifically studied forgetting.

His experiment – and his results are widely accepted as a general theory for how we learn and retain information.

Graphing his results, he developed a formula for how long items remain in our memory.

Read pg 361-362. Ebbinghaus (1985)...
Interestingly even when learning occurs over a period of time (days, weeks months), overall retention is better, but the forgetting curve retains the same shape.
The forgetting curve shows the pattern (rate and amount) of forgetting that occurs overtime.

orgetting is rapid soon after learning and slows down over time.

- 50% occurs within the first hour. Virtually all information that will be forgotten (65%) will be lost in the first 8 hours. Sleep....

- Results consistently indicate a characteristic pattern
- The more meaningful the material, the slower rate of forgetting. (+ vice versa)

- The better the initial learning / or encoding / the longer the material will be retained! (Mr Berry - teach us well!)

- When info is well learning, the rate of retention is the same regardless of the degree of difficulty of material or learning ability of the learner!
UN home learning activity
pg 362 L.A. 7.1 Q1,2,3 Ext 2,5,6

At home L.A. 7.2 - Fun Exp
In class pg 364 Box 7.1 (do in books)
Being asked to reproduce information with the fewest possible cues.

Free Recall – asked to remember as much information as possible in no particular order -List of grocery items

Serial Recall – asked to recall information in a particular order Names of Cities (itinerary)

Cued Recall - given a cue then asked to recall Seven Dwarfs: first letter of

Notebooks: Come up with one each of your own.
Measures of Retention
Identifying correct information from among alternatives.

retrieve more this way as recognition
provides more cues for retrieving from LTM.

Recognition is more sensitive measure (meaning easier).

Example – multiple choice Q’s.

Research 69% free recall. 86% recognition (7 dwarfs).
Even if cant recall or recognize doesn’t mean there is no memory. (apparent forgetting!)

Relearning or Methods of Savings invovles learning info again that has been previously learned and stored in LTM.
(exam revision!)

If relearn it and learn it more quickly the 2nd time assumption is that there was some memory available. (even if you realize it or not - in unconscious)

- Relearning takes less time

Read pg 368 Ebbinghaus (1885)....

Method of savings as we can measure how much time we save.
Measuring Memory - Relearning
Measuring Memory - Recall
There are 3 main kids of measures that are used to determine if information has been retained: Recall, Recognition, and Relearning.
Measuring Memory - Recognition
Let's practice in your notebooks pg 370 L.A 7.4 Q 5
The sensitivity of a measure of retention (recall, recognition, relearning) refers to its ability to assess the amount of information that has been stored in memory.

- think of sensitivity as easiness. The more sensitive a test the easier it

- A sensitive measure can detect more information in LTM

Research indicates that:
- recall is the least sensitive measure
- relearning test to be most sensitive measure
- recognition tends to be less sensitive that relearning but more sensitive than recall

Read pg 369 Nelson (1978)...
Relative sensitivity of measure of retention
UN home learning
pg 370 L.A. 7.4 Q 1,2,3 Ext 4,6

Retrieval Failure Theory: Forget because fail to use the right retrieval cue.

- The inability to retrieve previously stored information.

- If you forget that doesn’t mean that the information is gone forever, it simply means that for whatever reason you have failed to retrieve that information.

- A retrieval cue is ANY stimulus that assist in locating and recovering information stored in memory.

- Also refered to cue-dependant forgetting.

- A cue guides or your memory search much like terms in google do. Google example.

- Read pg 371 - For example...

One of the most frequent experiences of retrieval failure is the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon.
Theories of Forgetting
Forget because other memories interfere with the one we are trying to retrieve, particularly those that are similar to the one we are trying to recall

- Retroactive interference – New information interferes with the remembering of old information
Examples - Mr Berry and names: calling Chloe - Brodie (new info interfering with old)
In class activity pg 375 read retroactive interference.

Proactive interference - Old information interferes with ability to remember new information
xamples - Mr Berry and names: Calling Brodie - Chloe (old info interfering with new.

- Pg 376 - Read Pro-active interference is...
Interference theory

Motivated forgetting occurst because we want to forget, defense mechanism that protects us from distressing memories.

- Information not lost but hard to retrieve during normal waking consciousness

- Motivation
can also lead us to recode distressing memories as more pleasant
Motivated forgetting
Based on the assumption that when new learning occurs a chemical memory trace is formed containing that information.

Forget because memory trace fades over time due to disuse. (not being used)

Earliest theory of forgetting - based on physiological terms.
Decay theory
Question 1: What is forgetting?

Question 2: According to retrieval failure theory, why do we sometimes forget?

Question 3: What is another name for retrieval failure theory?

Question 4: What is a retrieval cue?

Question 5: What is the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon?

Question 6: Experiencing the TOT phenomenon is usually associated with feelings of happiness. True or false?

Question 7: A limitation of retrieval failure theory is that there is no research evidence to support it. True or false?
Quick quiz
The theory doesn’t explain why there is a failure to retrieve some memories but not others.
There is research evidence to support it. Studies of recall vs recognition show that the amount of forgetting can be greatly reduced when
retrieval cues are made available, e.g. Meyer & Hilterbrand (1984) study.
Tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon
Tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) is
a state, or feeling, that
occurs when you are aware
of knowing something but
you are not able to retrieve
it from memory at that point
in time.

The information then
typically ‘pops up’ when
you are not thinking about it
some time later.
It has been suggested
that the TOT phenomenon
involves a ‘partial retrieval
process’. What does this

Does the TOT
phenomenon provide
evidence for or against
the semantic network
Retrieval failure
Memory fades
over time
due to disuse.

Decay theory
There is a
strong desire
(motive) to
Other competing
memories interfere
with retrieval of
what we are trying
to recall.
We lack, or fail to
use, the right cues
to retrieve
information stored
in memory.
Theories of
There are a number of theories to explain why we forget. The ones we need to know are
- retrieval failure theory
- interference theory
- motivated forgetting
- decay theory
VCAA: Strengths and weaknesses
Retrieval failure theory
Strengths and Weaknesses
Question 1: What is forgetting?
Answer: The inability to retrieve previously stored information.
Question 2: According to retrieval failure theory, why do we sometimes forget?
Answer: Because we lack or fail to use the right retrieval cues to retrieve information stored in memory.
Question 3: What is another name for retrieval failure theory?
Answer: Cue-dependent forgetting.
Question 4: What is a retrieval cue?
Answer: Any stimulus that assists the process of locating and recovering information stored in memory.
Question 5: What is the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon?
Answer: A state or feeling that occurs when you are aware of knowing something, but you are not able to retrieve it from memory at that point in time.
Question 6: Experiencing the TOT phenomenon is usually associated with feelings of happiness. True or false?
Answer: False, it is usually associated with feelings of frustration.
Question 7: A limitation of retrieval failure theory is that there is no research evidence to support it. True or false?
Answer: False.
In class pg 374 L.A. 7.7
UN home learning
pg 374 L.A. 7.8 1,2,3, Ext 3,4,6
Experimental Design
- Wickens and collegues (1963) found that information must be similar to the info you are trying to recall in order to interfere with its retrieval.

- Retrieval is more complicated when there is more similar info to remember.

- According to interference theory, interference comes from memories of similar information.
Strengths and Weaknesses
In class activity pg 379 L.A. 7.10
UN home learning
pg 378 L.A. 7.9 Q 1,2,3, Ext 4,5,6
- Anecdotal. This happens to every quite a lot. (think pins/passwords)
- Research. As above. Harder to retain word list the more you have to retain and the more similar they are.

- Does not explain why we forget items that could not be due to interference. E.g. Our first birthday.
Two types of motivated forgetting

- subconscious defense mechanism

- Involves unconsciously blocking a memory/event from entering consciousness
- Person unaware of memory/event
- Also called a
defense mechanism

– conscious choosing not to think

-involves a deliberate
conscious effort (decision) to keep it out of our consciousness.
-person is aware of memory/event
Strengths and Weaknesses
Strengths (research findings)
- fMRI. Actively not thinking about words made their recall harder later.
- Researchs concluded that when people actively try not to think of something they are less likely to remember it (Anderson & others, 2003).

- Theory has been of limited value as it only explains specific cases.
Eg doesn't explain why we forget items on our shopping list (not traumatic)
Contribution to memory/forgetting
Our motivations not only prevent certain memories but change the tone and content of memories that are retrieved.
Research showed: recollection of traumatic memories reworked as neutral or even

Memory can be affected by a persons conscious or unconsciousness needs, fears, anxieties and desires.
- Eg. So anxious that you can't remember an answer.
Strengths and Weaknesses
Explains forgetting in sensory memory and STM (decay over time)....

.....but not LTM (decay not thought to be due to time).
- eg. Random vivid memories that we experience (unused trace that has not decayed).

Does not explain how Cues assist retrieval. According to this theory Cues should have no impact on memory retrieval.
Read box 7.5 and 7.6 pg 385 as class.
UN home learning
pg 386 L.A. 7.13 Q 1,2, Ext 3.

In class pg 387 L.A. 7.14
Manipulation and improvement of memory
Manipulation of memory
Improvement of memory
Context and state dependent cues
Mnemonic devices
Narrative chaining
Context-dependent cues
State dependent cues
Studies by Elizabeth Loftus
Effect of misleading qns on eye-witness testimonies
New memory is not simply recorded. It is actively constructed.
- to form a new memory, we organise and encode visual, auditory, tactile into one memory.
- when remembering we reconstruct details of memory.
- This process can cause errors, distortions in what you think you remember.
Bartlett believed Ebbinghaus studied memory in a artificial way.
- Bartlett has people read a story or look at a picture
- Each time participants 'remembered' the origional stimulus a little differently.
- Bartlett concluded that we tend to remember only a few key details, during recall we reconstruct the memory - drawing on personal views, beliefs, expectations to make up the missing bits. It is usually done unconsciously.
American Psychologist Elizabeth Loftus is the world leader in eyewitness testimony and memory reconstruction.
- Loftus found that eyewitness testimony is reconstructed and not always accurate.

Loftus research highlighted how leading questions can manipulate memory (specifically the reconstruction of memory)

A misleading question (VCAA) is a question that has content or phrased in such a way as to suggest a desired answer.

eg. What speed was the car traveling vs
How fast was the car going?

Thing of your own misleading question with the accompanying correct question

OBJECTION! - Leading the witness. (this is where it comes from)
Class Discussion -
What implications does Loftus' research have on eye witness testimonies?
Read Loftus and Palmer research (1974)
pg 394 - 396.

Key points 1st experiment
- 45 students from university
- Shown 7 clips of car accidents
- Participants were required to write a description of the accident

5 exp groups. Asked different question. "About how fast were the cars going then they _____ each other" I.V. was word: smashed, collided, bumped, hit, and contacted. D.V. speed.

- Results: Most intense verb 'smashed' brought highest speed estimate (40.8 miles) and least intense verb 'contacted' 31.8 miles per hour.
- Differences were statistically significant

- Concluded it was due to participants memories being distorted by the verbal label used.

- E.V. uncertain about speed of car - used the verb to fit in with expectations of researcher. Experimenter effect.
Key points - 2nd experiment
- 150 different university student, volunteered, randomally assigned to either 3 groups (or conditions)
- Group 1 - About how fast were the cards going when they
each other?
- Group 2 - About how fast were the cards going when they
each other?
- Group 3 - No questions

Results - Smashed 10.46, Hit 8.00 - statistically significant

- Participants returned 1 wk later. Required to answer 11 questions. Key - did you see any broken glass? (no actual glass)

Results - Smashed 16, Hit 7 there was glass - statistically sig

Conclusion - Part 1 participants had formed a memory of event. Part 2 participants added information into memory after the event. They actually remembered seeing broken glass.

Defined as source confusion - when the true source of memory is forgotton or attributed to wrong source.
UN home learning
L.A. 8.1 Q 1,2,3 E 5

In class Q 6
Revision Activities
Memory improvement has interested psychologists and the public for ever.
Who wishes they could recall what they want when they want?

- Unusual information easy to remember. Mere exposure leads to memory. Eg Hawks!!!!!!!! Examples?

- Mostly we must learn info that is difficult (just look at our txt book)

To make sure info goes beyond sensory memory, we must attend to it, for it to be moved from STM to LTM we must organise and integrate it.

- Enhancing memory is NOT that difficult.
Effective way to improve retrieval is to recreate the conditions under which it was learnt.

- Called context (external environment) and state (internal environment) dependent cues

- Cue is a clue!

- Research has showed recreating context and state cues increases sensitivity (or recall!)

Can you come up with some examples?
Contex-dependent cues are external environmental cues in the specific situation (context) where the memory was formed.

- Act as retrieval cues to make the recall of memory easier.

- Can be sights, sounds, smells, that were specific to that situation

How can we use this knowledge for our end of year exam?
State dependent cues are associated with an individual's internal physiological/psychological state at the time which the memory was formed.

-Acts a retrieval cues (must recreate the state) to assist recall.

- Can be current emotional state (happy, sad) current physiological state (drunk, stoned, caffeine rush.)

- Need to re-create the state of consciousness (ASC vs NWC spectrum) to make memory recall possible
Does this mean alcohol and memory improve memory?
Mood also is a state dependent cue. We recall more information associated with our current state.

- When happy we recall happier memories (or recode memories to be happier)

- When sad (or depressed) we recall sadder memories (or recode memories to be happier)

- This has real implications for depression. Why?

- Depression cycle?

Also important when encoding memoryies

When Sad we code in sadder aspects of information into LTM. When happy we focus in on and remember the happier aspects of current events.
UN home Learining
Pg 402 L.A. 8.5 Q1,2 Ext 3,4
Question 1: What are mnemonic devices?

Question 2: What are acronyms?
Question 3: Acrostics are also known as the ‘first-letter technique’. True or false?

Question 4: AWOL (Absent WithOut Leave) is an example of an acrostic. True or false?

Question5 A limitation of narrative chaining is that there is no research evidence to support it. True or false?
Quick quiz
Describe how you would remember the
shopping list underneath using each of the
three mnemonic devices:

narrative chaining

The effectiveness of narrative chaining was studied by Bower & Clark in 1969.

Describe the method used in this experiment and its results. Pg 405-406

Do the results of the study provide evidence that narrative chaining is an effective mnemonic device?
Source: Getty
What is the acronym commonly used to remember the colours of the rainbow?
Other example....?ANZAC
Acronyms are pronounceable words formed from the first letters of a sequence of words.

The acronym doesn’t have
to be a real word e.g. it is often a pronounceable abbreviation.

The letters of the abbreviation act as a retrieval aid in the recall of more complex material.
Mnemonic devices are
techniques for enhancing
or improving memory.

Mnemonic devices
make use of memory
already stored in LTM.

The devices do not simplify information, they actually make it more elaborate.

What does this mean?
Narrative chaining involves linking otherwise unrelated items to one another (chaining) to form a meaningful sequence or story (narrative).
Construct a narrative
that would help you
remember the following

birthday card
Every good boy deserves fruit.

KEY difference is to acromyns is taht acrostics are full sentences.

What are some examples? Roy G BiV

Useful when you have to remember information in order.
Acrostics involve making
verbal associations for items
to be remembered by
constructing phrases or
sentences using the first
letters of the information to
be remembered.

Acrostics are also known
as the first-letter
wombat hair is combed high
teachers and ugly giants hate tickling
does every cat in Melbourne attract lice?
big elephants cannot always use small exits
Identify the word each of the following acrostics are
helping you spell
I wonder if I can remember,
wait a second...... Great Scott!!!

If I just use a Mnemonic device

Ill be able to!

Gee I'm good looking!
Carlson (1987) found the ease or difficulty with which we learn new information depends not on how much we must learn, but on how well it fits with what we already know.
- The better it fits the easier it is to retrieve.

Each mnemonic device is based on a particular kind of elaboration, encoding or rehearsal strategy.

- VCAA: We need to know Acronyms, Acrostics, and Narrative chaining (only)
What are some examples of Psychology ones we could use?
The research provides strong evidence that using a technique that adds organisation and meaningfulness to otherwise meaningless information is a form of elaborated rehersal and will improve retrieval.
Question 1: What are mnemonic devices?
Answer: Techniques for enhancing or improving memory.
Question 2: What are acronyms?
Answer: Pronounceable words formed from the first letters of a sequence of words.
Question 3: Acrostics are also known as the ‘first-letter technique’. True or false?
Answer: True.
Question 4: AWOL (Absent WithOut Leave) is an example of an acrostic. True or false?
Answer: False, it is an example of an acronym.
Question 5 A limitation of narrative chaining is that there is no research evidence to support it. True or false?
Answer: False.
In class read box 8.5
UN home learning
Pg 411 L.A. 8.8 Q1, 2
In class L.A. 8.9 pg 412
Full transcript