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Achievements and Problems in Space Exploration

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jomaey sujide

on 1 March 2014

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Transcript of Achievements and Problems in Space Exploration

Space
Outer space, or simply space, is the void that exists between celestial bodies, including the Earth. It is not completely empty, but consists of a hard vacuum containing a low density of particles: predominantly a plasma of hydrogen and helium, as well as electromagnetic radiation, magnetic fields, neutrinos, dust and cosmic rays.
Achievements
in
Space Exploration
Top 10 Achievements in Space Exploration
Problems
in
Space Exploration
Achievements and Problems in Space Exploration
Problems to be considered in Space Exploration
Local concentrations have condensed into stars and galaxies. In most galaxies, observations provide evidence that 90% of the mass is in an unknown form, called dark matter, which interacts with other matter through gravitational but not electromagnetic forces. Data indicates that the majority of the mass-energy in the observable Universe is a poorly understood vacuum energy of space which astronomers label dark energy. Intergalactic space takes up most of the volume of the Universe, but even galaxies and star systems consist almost entirely of empty space.
First, let's define
Space exploration is the ongoing discovery and exploration of celestial structures in outer space by means of continuously evolving and growing space technology. While the study of space is carried out mainly by astronomers with telescopes, the physical exploration of space is conducted both by unmanned robotic probes and human spaceflight.
Now, let's define
Space Exploration
Exploration
Exploration is the act of searching for the purpose of discovery of information or resources.
Now, Let's define
10. First aircraft returns to Earth with
samples of an asteroid
June 13, 2010
9. Launch of the first private manned vehicle
June 21, 2004
8. First spacecraft to orbit and land on an asteroid
February 14, 2000
7. First large optical space telescope launched
April 25, 1990
6. First spacecraft makes close flyby of a comet
March 13, 1986
5. First pictures get transmitted from Mars
July 20, 1976
4. First human walks on the moon
July 20, 1969
3. First spacecraft soft lands on the moon
February 3, 1966
2. First space walk
March 18, 1965
1. First Human orbits the earth April 12, 1961
Hayabusa, is a Japanese spacecraft that was launched into space in May 2003 and it landed on the asteroid Itokawa in November 2005. It landed back on Earth in 2010 and brought with it valuable scientific data on Itokawa. It brought with it 1500 grains, less than 10 micrometers each and they are still being analyzed in Japan.
Micheal Winston Melvill, an American test pilot, was the first commercial astronaut and person, who traveled to space on a privately funded spacecraft. It was in the year 2004 when Melvill piloted SpaceShipOne and made his maiden flight past the edge of the space.
The Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous Shoemaker, was the first ever spacecraft to orbit around an asteroid and then finally landed on it on February 12, 2001. The NEAR spacecraft was launched in 1996 by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and its destination was Eros, the largest asteroid in an earth crossing orbit.
The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is till date regarded as the most sophisticated optical observatory ever placed in the orbit of the earth. It helped determine the first accurate rate at which the universe expands, and this rate was eventually called the Hubble’s constant.
Giotto was the first ever solar system exploration mission initiated and implemented by the European Space Agency. It was released into the space with the aim of imaging and analyzing the nucleus of Halley’s Comet, which would come within 569 km radius of the Earth on March 13, 1986.
Viking 1, was one of the first robotic U.S. Spacecrafts launched by NASA to study Mars. The spacecraft was launched into space on August 20, 1975 and after one long year of orbiting around Mars, it was able to map and analyze large expanses of the surface of Mars and bring back important inputs about weather, and the two tiny moons that orbit it.
It was on July 16, 1969 when Neil Armstrong, along with Edwin E. Aldrin Jr. and Michael Collins left in Apollo 11 for the moon. Four days later, Apollo 11 touched down on the south western edge of the Sea of Tranquility. And, this is what he said “That’s one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind.” Indeed, Armstrong’s journey to the moon will be always remembered as an event which marked the power of science and technology in space exploration.
Luna 9 was one among the series of 24 unmanned Soviet spacecrafts launched between 1959-76. Whereas Luna 1 became the first man-made object to orbit around the sun, Luna 9 achieved the success of soft landing. This was followed by more lunar probes and the last spacecraft, Luna 24 successfully returned back with lunar soil samples dug from 70 feet below the moon’s surface.
Voskhod 2 was launched in 1965 and during its orbit around the Earth; it let Aleksey Arkhipovich Leonov out of the space craft by means of an air lock. All this time he remained tethered to the ship and took pictures, and also practiced to maneuver free fall before reentering the Voskhod 2. This space ship completed 17 orbits in 26 hours.
It was Vostok 1 that carried the first human being into space. It carried cosmonaut Yury A. Gagarin, who made a single orbit of the earth in 1 hour, 48 minutes. After this first achievement in space exploration, U.S.S.R launched a series of six Vostoks in two years and the last one remained in the space for 94 hours and traveled 1,600,000 miles orbiting around the Earth.
Cost
One of the biggest problems with travel to space is cost. According to The Astronomy Café, the cost of sending anyone or anything into space was $10,000 a pound as of 2003. While the idea of space exploration captures the imagination and intrigues both nations and their governments, the bulk of government budgets are spent on practical items much closer to home, such as national defense, welfare programs and housing assistance. The high cost of space travel causes many to view it as a luxury rather than an essential government program in need of the massive funding it requires. The Astronomy Cafe reports that while NASA received 5 percent of America's federal budget in the 1960s, it received only 0.7 percent in 2003.
Technical Issues
When traveling in space, humans need to bring with them everything they need or the means to make everything they need. This means that astronauts have limited access to the tools and repair parts they may need if there is a problem with a spaceship or space station. Unfortunately, problems with spaceships do occur, as evidenced by the Challenger and other spacecraft that have met with disaster. The longer the distance traveled, the greater the odds that something could go wrong that the astronauts may not be able to fix.
The Human Factor
Traveling through space requires human beings to overcome both physical and psychological problems. Because communication with Earth is limited during space travel, it is easy for astronauts to feel isolated and depressed while in space. Long trips provide limited contact with friends and family while requiring astronauts to cohabitate in close quarters with other mission members they may not be fond of. Time spent in space also lowers blood pressure and can lead to inadequate blood flow in the brain. Experiments have shown that the longer a person is in space, the longer it takes to normalize her blood pressure after her return to Earth. Space travel also causes bone and muscle loss in addition to exposing people to potentially cancer-causing ionizing radiation found in cosmic rays.
Space Weather
Space weather refers to changes in the sun that cause changes in the atmosphere of space, such as solar flares and solar winds. Changes in space weather can be a major concern for astronauts traveling in space as they can dramatically increase the levels of radiation astronauts are exposed to. Radiation affects humans much more quickly in space because they are not sheltered by Earth's protective magnetosphere. It is also possible for a solar flare to be large enough to heat a planet's upper atmosphere. This causes the atmosphere to expand and create more drag on any spaceships in orbit, causing the orbit to decay faster and possibly knocking the craft out of orbit, sending it burning into the atmosphere.
Justification
Tied in with the question of cost and risk of human life is the question of justification. Space exploration appeals to the human desire to learn about the universe; however, it does not have any straightforward, pragmatic application. While there may be some practical use in the distant future, such as possibly colonizing other planets, it is difficult to justify continued space exploration to people who are worried about immediate concerns, such as crime or the economy.
Unforeseen Risks
There is always the problem of unforeseen risk with space exploration. The space shuttle Challenger exploded during launch in 1986, killing seven astronauts, and the shuttle Colombia exploded during reentry in 2003, also killing seven. Radiation from the sun is a constant danger to astronauts, and there may be unforeseen risks when they are traveling far beyond the earth, exacerbated by the fact that there would be little hope of getting back home in time for help.
Disadvantages of Unmanned Probes
Unmanned space probes are often considered the best choice for space exploration, because they do not put human lives at risk and are relatively cheaper to launch since they do not need space for human comfort or necessities. However, there are also downsides to unmanned probes, including the fact that they cannot adapt to unforeseen circumstances. A good example of this is the Mars Climate Orbiter, which received incorrect coordinates for landing and burned upon entry before it could send any data about Mars. Over $120 million was wasted on this probe.
Definition of Terms
Celestial Body
A celestial body refers to naturally occurring physical entities, associations or structures that current science has demonstrated to exist in the observable universe. Typically it refers to a single, cohesive structure that is bound together by gravity (and sometimes by electromagnetism).
Magnetic Field
are produced by moving electric charges and the intrinsic magnetic moments of elementary particles associated with a fundamental quantum property, their spin. In special relativity, electric and magnetic fields are two interrelated aspects of a single object, called the electromagnetic tensor; the split of this tensor into electric and magnetic fields depends on the relative velocity of the observer and charge. In quantum physics, the electromagnetic field is quantized and electromagnetic interactions result from the exchange of photons.
Electromagnetic Radiation
is a form of radiant energy, propagating through space via photon wave particles. In a vacuum, it propagates at a characteristic speed, the speed of light, normally in straight lines. EMR is emitted and absorbed by charged particles. As an electromagnetic wave, it has both electric and magnetic field components, which oscillate in a fixed relationship to one another, perpendicular to each other and perpendicular to the direction of energy and wave propagation.
Neutrino
is an electrically neutral, weakly interacting elementary subatomic particle with half-integer spin. The neutrino (meaning "small neutral one" in Italian) is denoted by the Greek letter ν (nu). All evidence suggests that neutrinos have mass but the upper bounds established for their mass are tiny even by the standards of subatomic particles.
Cosmic Rays
are very high-energy particles, mainly originating outside the Solar System. They may produce showers of secondary particles that penetrate and impact the Earth's atmosphere and sometimes even reach the surface. Composed primarily of high-energy protons and atomic nuclei, they are of mysterious origin. Data from the Fermi space telescope (2013) have been interpreted as evidence that a significant fraction of primary cosmic rays originate from the supernovae of massive stars. However, this is not thought to be their only source. Active galactic nuclei probably also produce cosmic rays.
Probes
is a unmanned spacecraft that leaves Earth orbit and explores space. It may approach the Moon; enter interplanetary space; flyby, orbit or land on other planetary bodies; or approach interstellar space. Space probes are a form of robotic spacecraft.
Dark Matter
is a type of matter hypothesized in astronomy and cosmology to account for a large part of the mass that appears to be missing from the universe. Dark matter cannot be seen directly with telescopes; evidently it neither emits nor absorbs light or other electromagnetic radiation at any significant level. It is otherwise hypothesized to simply be matter that is not reactant to light. Instead, the existence and properties of dark matter are inferred from its gravitational effects on visible matter, radiation, and the large-scale structure of the universe. According to the Planck mission team, and based on the standard model of cosmology, the total mass–energy of the known universe contains 4.9% ordinary matter, 26.8% dark matter and 68.3% dark energy. Thus, dark matter is estimated to constitute 84.5% of the total matter in the universe, while dark energy plus dark matter constitute 95.1% of the total content of the universe.
Dark Energy
is a hypothetical form of energy that permeates space and exerts a negative pressure, which would have gravitational effects to account for the differences between the theoretical and observational results of gravitational effects on visible matter. Dark energy is not directly observed, but rather inferred from observations of gravitational interactions between astronomical objects, along with dark matter.
Cohabitate
is an arrangement where two people who are not married live together in an emotionally and/or sexually intimate relationship on a long-term or permanent basis.
Exacerbate
Exacerbate is related to the adjective acrid, often used to describe sharp-smelling smoke. Think of exacerbate then as a sharp or bitter thing that makes something worse. A drought will exacerbate a country's food shortage. Worsen, intensify, aggravate and compound are similar, but exacerbate has the sense of an irritant being added in to make something bad even worse.
Prepared by Group 4:
Leader: Dimaguila, Janina

Members:
Goloran, Paolo Rafael D.
Obeja, Andrew
Acuña, Claire
Pambid, Kristof
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