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Potential of Augmented Reality in Higher Education

An overview of Augmented Reality and how it might be used in Higher Education

Matt Bower

on 25 February 2014

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Transcript of Potential of Augmented Reality in Higher Education

The future is in our hands

How can Augmented Reality be most effectively used to promote cognitive development?
How can the networked nature of Augmented Reality be utilised to effectively facilitate and support collaborative learning?
What Augmented Reality design and implementation strategies best support student learning?
How can we best support teacher design thinking to leverage the potentials of Augmented Reality?

A significant research agenda

Perfectly situated scaffolding
: providing knowledge at exact time and place of need –increasing cognitive efficiency (e.g. instruction manuals for electronic equipment

Physical transcension
: overcoming physical limitations of our world to scale, manipulate and mix in safe, inexpensive and time effective ways (from molecular to galactic)

Pedagogical affordances of AR

Thought Experiment – What could AR do?

Affordances of Input Devices

Augmented Reality Systems can be defined as those that allow real and virtual objects to co-exist in the same space and be interacted with in real-time (Azuma, 1997)

Augmented Reality enables the seamless compositing of virtual objects onto a real environment in a contextually relevant manner (Billinghurst et al., 2001)

What is Augmented Reality?

Azuma, R. (1997). A survey of augmented reality. Presence, 6(4), 355-385.
Billinghurst, M., Kato, H., & Poupyrev, I. (2001). The magicbook-moving seamlessly between reality and virtuality. Computer Graphics and Applications, IEEE, 21(3), 6-8.
Dunleavy, M., Dede, C., & Mitchell, R. (2009). Affordances and limitations of immersive participatory Augmented Reality simulations for teaching and learning. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 18(1), 7-22.
Kaufmann, H., & Schmalstieg, D. (2003). Mathematics and geometry education with collaborative augmented reality. Computers & Graphics, 27(3), 339-345.
Kerawalla, L., Luckin, R., Seljeflot, S., Woolard, A. (2006). 'Making it real': exploring the potential of augmented reality for teaching primary school science. Virtual Reality, 10(3-4), 163-174. doi: 10.1007/s10055-006-0036-4
Milgram, P., Takemura, H., Utsumi, A., & Kishino, F. (1994). Augmented Reality: A class of displays on the reality-virtuality continuum. In Proceedings of Telemanipulator and Telepresence Technologies, (pp. 2351–2334).
Squire, K., & Jan, M. (2007). Mad City Mystery: Developing scientific argumentation skills with a place-based augmented reality game on handheld computers. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 16(1), 5-29.

Speech to text + translation engine + text to speech = Real-time audio translation

Exciting things happen when input matches output

Affordances of Output Devices

Milgram et al. (2004)

Milgram’s Reality-Virtuality Continuum

Why AR will make the WWW seem like a rounding error

Augmented reality (AR), a capability that has been around for decades, is shifting from what was once seen as a gimmick to a tool with tremendous potential. The layering of information over 3D space produces a new experience of the world, sometimes referred to as “blended reality,” and is fueling the broader migration of computing from the desktop to the mobile device, bringing with it new expectations regarding access to information and new opportunities for learning.

A key characteristic of augmented reality is its ability to respond to user input. This interactivity confers significant potential for learning and assessment; with it, students can construct new understanding based on interactions with virtual objects that bring underlying data to life.

Dynamic processes, extensive datasets, and objects too large or too small to be manipulated can be brought into a student’s personal space at a scale and in a form easy to understand and work with.

2014 Horizon Report - Higher Education

Organisations competing for users to sign up to their AR channel/s (e.g. advertisers)
Advances in search engine technology that enable more intelligent retrieval of information (such as http://www.wired.com/business/2013/04/kurzweil-google-ai/)
As computer-brainwave interfaces mature our experiences are stored in cloud based neural networks (for elaboration of this concept see http://techcrunch.com/2012/11/25/5-ways-augmented-reality-is-starting-to-get-real/)

(Squire & Jan, 2007)

Games based learning
– by creating a digital narrative, placing students in a role, providing authentic resources, and embedding contextually relevant information

Pedagogies Supported by AR


Eg Wordlens: http://wordlens.com/us/

Exciting things happen when input matches output

Sify Innovation examples http://sifysoftware.com
AR in Education

Ingress http://ingress.com

AR Games

AR Basketball http://augmentedpixels.com

AR Games

Alien Attack http://www.apptoyz.com/apps/alien-attack

AR Games


AR Plane Finder http://my.pinkfroot.com/page/plane-finder-ar-track-live

Location based


Wikitude http://wikitude.com

Location based


Ad Sugar http://adsugarmedia.com

Image (Marker) based

String http://poweredbystring.com

Image (Marker) based

(Kaufmann & Schmalstieg, 2003)

Inquiry-based learning
– embedding virtual manipulable models within the real world

Pedagogies Supported by AR

(Dunleavy et al, 2009)

Situated learning
– authentic and contextualised learning by embedding educational experiences within the real world and bringing the real world into the classroom

Pedagogies Supported by AR

Instruction manuals

Exciting things happen when input matches output

LearnAR http://learnar.org

AR in Education

Sekai Camera http://sekaicamera.com

Location based

Paper4D http://paper4D.com

Image (Marker) based


Potential of Augmented Reality in Higher Education
Aurasma (http://aurasma.com)
Layar (http://layar.com)
Junaio (http://junaio.com)

AR Systems enabling teachers and students to become designers


As for any technology, the pedagogical effectiveness depends on the way it is used, not the technology itself

Pedagogies Supported by AR

(Kerawalla et al., 2006)


engage on deeper level with the tasks, concepts and resources to make deep and lasting connections within their knowledge base
Pedagogies Supported by AR

Output augments user’s environment:(screen, speakers
vibrate, flash)

Media returned:

Data sent to server
(if required)


How does AR work?







(start 46secs)

Image Based

Location based

AR Games
AR in

of AR

Modulating Reality
and AR

of AR

SkyView http://www.terminaleleven.com/skyview

Location based
Planets3D book to ventures to further planets
Potential for integrated uses of AR

Spacecraft 3D to simulate Martian data collection
Potential for integrated uses of AR

Where to find out more...
Full transcript