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Seven Steps of Policy Making

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Amanda Ross

on 27 November 2012

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Transcript of Seven Steps of Policy Making

Policy Making Process Determination of a policy's accomplishments, consequences, and shortcomings Policy Evaluation Recognition This involves not only recognizing that an issue exists, but also studying the problem and its causes in detail. This stage involves determining how aware the public is of the issue, deciding who will participate in fixing it, and considering what means are available to accomplish a solution. Answers to such questions often help policy makers gauge which policy changes, if any, are needed to address the identified problem. The agenda can be set by the public, special interest groups, or government officials. In 2007 Pennsylvania announced a new standard of food safety aimed to prevent “mislabeling” of food products, especially “misleading” labels. An administrative agency, the state’s department of agriculture, targeted dairy food as the problem. Specifically, milk produced or sold in Pennsylvania could not be labeled as “hormone-free.” Agenda Setting Government recognition that a problem is worthy of consideration for governmental action After the problem is recognized and defined, the policy must make its way to the attention of public officials to secure a place on an agenda. An agenda is a set of issues to be discussed in further detail; whether by a systematic agenda of the public, or by governmental agenda, in which public officials feel obliged to devote active attention. That interest group had long argued that milk labels saying “no artificial growth hormone” or similar language harmed sales of their products by implying that milk from cows treated with rBST is unsafe. They cited Federal Drug Administration approval for rBST use and scientific evidence of its safety. The state agriculture secretary agreed. Policy Formulation Crafting of proposed courses of action to resolve problem Routine Formulation: Altering existing policy proposals or creating new proposals within an area that has been previously addresses Analogous Formulation: Handles new problems by drawing on experience with similar problems in the past Creative Formulation: Attempt to develop new or unprecedented proposals, different from existing practices in hope that it will better resolve the issue The governor along with the Secretary of Agriculture thought of two policy changes, a revised standard for dairy product labeling and new procedures for oversight of labeling claims. Under rule revisions, labels are permitted to claim that milk came from cows not treated with rBST along with a disclaimer as to its potential for health risk. Dairy food processors are required to verify label claims by having dairy farmers sign affidavits regarding production methods. Policy Adoption The formal selection of public policies through the three branches This is the lengthy process of policy-making, because legislature or the chief executive must approve of this before any action is made. because after this step it becomes legal. To secure the needed votes in the legislative process, a bill may be watered down or modified at any point. Complex legislation may require substantial periods of time in order to pass. The legislation passed is often incremental, with only marginal changes in an existing policy. Legislation is typically written in a vague language leaving discretion to the people who implement the law. Budgeting Designate resources to provide for the proper implementation of policy Policies such as providing income security, require funding in order to be carried out. Funding for most policies is provided through the congressional budget process. Policy Implementation Administration or application of policy begins Administrative agencies may be authorized to use a number of techniques to implement the public policies Authoritative techniques: Incentive techniques: Capacity techniques: Hortatory techniques: Directed or restrained by government in order to prevent or eliminate activities that are unsafe, evil or immoral Offering payoffs or financial inducements to get them to comply with public policies, such as tax deductions or subsidies Provide information, education, training or resources that encourage the public to participate in desired activities. Encourage people to comply with policies by appealing to their morals The final stage in the public policy process, known as evaluation, is typically ongoing. This step usually involves a study of how effective the new policy has been in addressing the original problem, which often leads to additional public policy changes. It also includes reviewing funds and resources available to ensure that the policy can be maintained. In 1974, Congress enacted a national speed limit of 55 miles per hour. It was effective in reducing highway fatalities and gasoline consumption. On the other hand, the law increased costs for the trucking industry and was widely viewed as an unwarranted federal intrusion into an area that belonged to the states to regulate. The law was repealed in 1987.
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