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US History- Timeline

A path thorugh the history of the United States of American since Pre-Colonial Times to 1945
by

Maria Paula Martinez

on 18 March 2011

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Transcript of US History- Timeline

United States of America Pre-Colonial to 1827 1500’s: Separatists and Puritans
In the 1500s, King Henry the VIII broke off from the Catholic Church as part of the Protestant Reformation. The only difference between the Catholic Church and the Church of England were relations with the pope. The name "puritan" came to be used to describe members of the Church of England who wished to purify it of all semblances to the Roman Catholic Church but not break away from it. A radical minority within the Purity movement who wanted to remove themselves from the tainted English church and worship separately came to be known as the Separatists. 1607: Foundation of Jamestown: 1827 to 1877 The force Bill passed in 1833 referee back to the issue the United States, under Jackson, experienced with the Nullifiers. This Bill gave the president authority to use military and naval force if needed to collect tariffs. Facing such aggression, South California armed themselves for battle and the nullifiers sprung again into action. In efforts to arrive to a peace agreement, the Columbia convention met, declared the nullifiers as unnecessary and received in return the nullification of the Force Bill. Women and girls worked in textile factories under terrible conditions and incredibly low wages. Unable to form unions due to the constant surveillance or change jobs, since little to no jobs were provided to women at the time, the only resource they were left with was a strike. They then decided to quit working which only made Lowell change them for more girls in need of a job. This was one of the first and only-women strikes which set an example for future unions to develop and unfairness to be fought against.

Western expansion required removing more than 125,000 Native Americans from their lands done by trying to make the Indians part of the "white society" thorough Christianization or by violating treaties and taking more land from Indians than agreed to. Therefore, during Jackson's period various indigenous groups were obliged to move from their territories and into new ones designed for them under the Indian Removal Act. One of the most brutal of these forced marches was the Trail of Tears where thousands of Indians died in the journey. 1877 to 1914 1914 to 1945 1828: The Election of Andrew Jackson 1828: Tariff of Abominations 1830: B&O becomes the first railroad company in America 1830: Indian Removal Act 1831: Nat Turner's Rebellion 1832: The Nullification Crisis 1833 to 1870: American Anti-Slavery Society 1833: Force Bill 1834: Women Workers in Lowell, Massachusetts Strike 1836: Texas Independence Strike 1837: Panic of 1837 1838: Trail of Tears 1842: Commonwealth v. Hunt 1845: Texas is annexed to the nation 1847: Winfield Scott captures New Mexico 1849: California Gold Rush 1850: Fugitive Slave Law 1852: Uncle Tom's Cabin is Published 1856: Bleeding Kansas 1860: The Election of Abraham Lincoln
and Beginning of Civil War 1861: Battle of Bull Run 1862: Battle of Antietam 1862: Emancipation Proclamation 1864: Grant Takes Command of all Union Armies 1865: South Surrenders at Appomattox 1865- The Assassination of Lincoln 1867- Alaska is Purchased from Russia 1867- Foundation of the National Grange of Patrons of Husbandry 1868- 14th Amendment is Passes 1868- The Election of Ulysses S. Grant 1869: Transcontinental Railroad is Completed 1869: Knights of Labor 1872: Re-election of Ulysses S. Grant 1875: Civil Right Act 1875 1876: Election of Rutherford B. Hayes In efforts to represent the minorities, the common man sought a change in government and so chose Jackson as their next president. The Republican Party split in to the Democratic-Republicans and the National Republicans one supporting Jackson and the other Adams respectively. After a dirty campaign from both sides, Jackson wins by a vast majority (178 to 83 electoral votes) with special support from the southern and western states. He developed the era of the "common man" in efforts to represent the ideals of the common people. Discontent among black slaves was evident and rebellions, sabotage to crops and even poisoning their masters were ways in which it was demonstrated. Nat Turner was a black, semiliterate man who led an uprising of black slaves in which 60 Virginians, most of which were women and children, were killed. However, it became of no real importance for the consequences were brutal and bloody making clear uprises would not be tolerated. Still, this rebellion demonstrated a clear point: black enslaved discontent that would be further developed in the course of history. Nullifiers wanted the extermination of South Carolina legislature and yet it was never granted. Rather, the tariff of 1832 was passed without reaching southern desires. Due to this, nullifiers demands simply increased and finally reached two-thirds of the voting and threatened to remove South Carolina from the nation if costume duties were collected by force. Facing this, Jackson declared he would have all nullifiers hanged if their threats were to continue and sent militia into the state. At the sight of this the pekoe had no other option but to resign and comply with the tariff of 1833 which stated that by 1842 tariff rates would decrease by 10% and return to the levels known in 1816. The force Bill passed in 1833 referee back to the issue the United States, under Jackson, experienced with the Nullifiers. This Bill gave the president authority to use military and naval force if needed to collect tariffs. Facing such aggression, South California armed themselves for battle and the nullifiers sprung again into action. In efforts to arrive to a peace agreement, the Columbia convention met, declared the nullifiers as unnecessary and received in return the nullification of the Force Bill. Women and girls worked in textile factories under terrible conditions and incredibly low wages. Unable to form unions due to the constant surveillance or change jobs, since little to no jobs were provided to women at the time, the only resource they were left with was a strike. They then decided to quit working which only made Lowell change them for more girls in need of a job. This was one of the first and only-women strikes which set an example for future unions to develop and unfairness to be fought against. Western expansion required removing more than 125,000 Native Americans from their lands by trying to make the Indians part of the "white society" thorough Christianization or by violating treaties and taking more land from Indians than agreed to. Therefore, during Jackson's period various indigenous groups were obliged to move from their territories and into new ones designed for them under the Indian Removal Act. One of the most brutal of these forced marches was the Trail of Tears where thousands of Indians died in the journey. Court case in which the Supreme Court of Massachusetts decided unions were "honorable and peaceful". This was incredibly vital for future generations for labor unions were declared legal. Of course this did not legalize unions around the whole country but it was definitely a great advancement and one of the first steps towards doing so. This law stated that fugitive slaves could not testify on their own behalf and could not have a fair trial. These slaves were to be returned to their owner, given time in prison or sometimes even themselves become slave-catchers. Juries were bribed and so the law stayed as established during great part of the war. This book, by Beecher Stowe, sought to describe the horrors of slavery. Showing how many times slaves were sold along with cows and horses, the conditions they lived on, and all that they had to put up with in order to please their masters which was inhuman. It soon became acclaimed by many for its truth and its harsh images were an eye opener to many engaged in the Civil War. When given the right to choose whether to be a slave state or not, Kansas was utterly divided between the two choices which began as a disagreement and ended up in a bloody war where thousands died in combat only to establish their personal ideas. This choice was provided through the Doctrine of Popular Sovereignty. This battle was of vital importance during the war for it was a pivoting point. While the South was sure it was better prepared and with the help of the British Empire (since they were a source for raw material for them), the North had an unexpected victory. From that day forth, international help from the United Kingdom was removed from the war and allowed the North to be victorious. Lee was trapped by Northern troops when they took over Richmond at the Appomattox Courthouse in Virginia. Grant then met with him and gave him certain surrender terms and after a not very long time they came both out and the South had surrendered to the North. Confederates were allowed to keep their plowing horses for spring plowing along with other benefits but from now on were part of the North and slaves were to be set free. However, for this to take place, time was still to pass. Johnson, although unsuccessful in most matters, was extremely successful in foreign affairs. The Russians at the time were seeking who to sell the massive area of land known as Alaska since it was a disadvantage when fighting against the British Empire. They finally sold it to the Americans for $7.2 million dollars for they too were against the British Empire. Nevertheless, at the time reconstruction was still happening in the country and economic concerns rose. Even if sanctioned by government at the time, it later on proved to be of great value in natural resources such as oil and gas and accepted and priced by Americans. In efforts to join both sides of the nation a massive railroad that expanded from East to West was created. Two railroad companies were hired and payed in money and land for the ferocity they covered with lands. At the end this proved to be a terrible system for the rush actually made the railroads not to be constructed as they should and many of them had to be redone. However, the rails finally came together in Utah. Western expansion grew greatly, as did the wealth of these companies, for the land obtained were sold to farmers coming into the western area of the country allowing for these territories to be developed and farmed thus increase the overall wealth of the country. The Transcontinental Railroad united the East and West as never before and allowed for new territories to be discovered and inhabited. The Civil Right Act of 1875 was established to defend the rights of the colored men. According to this act, blacks had right to the same public commodities as white men and made racism in courts illegal. This laws were never fully enforced which lead to a period in which even though African Americans were free from slavery, they didn’t receive the rights of any other white citizen. Feeling of segregation and discrimination towards them began to arise and become a very important issue in society. 1869 to 1896: Gilden Age 1877: Jim Crow Laws 1877: Compromise of 1877 1880: The Election of President James A. Garfield 1880’s: Big Sister Policy 1882: Chinese Exclusion Act 1883: Pendleton Act 1884: The Election of President Grover Cleveland 1886: American Federation of Labor: 1888: The Election of Benjamin Harrison Early 1890´s: The Creation of the Populist Party 1892: The Election of Grover Cleveland 1896: Plessy v. Ferguson Trial 1896: William Jennings Bryans Speech 1898 to 1921: Anti-Imperialist League 1898: Annexation of Hawaii 1900: Re-election of President William McKinley 1900: Boxer Rebellion and Foraker Act 1901: The Assassination of President William McKinley 1900’s to 1922: Progressive Era 1903: Elkins Act 1903: Panama Canal 1904: The Election of Theodore Roosevelt 1908: The Election of President William H. Tarf 1912: The Election of President Woodrow Wilson 1913: 16th and 17th Amendments 1913: Federal Reserve Act As Mark Twain named it, the Gilden Age was a period in the history of the United States that came just before the end of the Reconstruction era. In the surface everything looked as if it was made of gold but in the inside, the country was suffering from a great deal of social and political struggles. A strong economy was being developed, but at what cost? Huge corporations began to create trusts which became so powerful that they even got control over the government. Corruption came to its highest point ever as the wealthy business owners were able to bend the laws for their own benefit and suppressed the working classes. As business became stronger by the minute, the common people began to found unions to fight them. This period would then evolve into the Progressive Era. The Jim Crow Laws were a set of laws that prevented a racial mixture between black and white men in public. According to the laws, blacks had the right to the same commodities as white men. They couldn’t share places such as restaurants, movie theatres, and public transportation. These laws ended up in a great deal of violence among the two separate racial groups and segregation among them. The Compromise of 1877 meant the end of Reconstruction period and the admission of the Southern Confederation States back to the Union. Rutherford became president the year before and he officially removed the last of the northern troops from the South which meant that Southern States could regain part of the political party of the nation as a whole. Finally after many years of dispute, the states were united in a single country. This national federation was founded by Samuel Gompers with the purpose of improving the economic gains for its members such as safety laws, trade organizations, better wages and eight-hour work days. Almost all its members where white middle class men. The AFL was one of the most lasting federations which had a positive impact in the conditions workers had in the United States. The Populist Party or also known as the People´s Party, was founded by farmers from the South and West who were looking for better conditions of living. They had been terribly affected by the growth of competition from other nations, the introduction of farming machines and the lowering prices, result of over production. These farmers came together to fight against the high prices in storage and the high prices in interests of loans. They also wanted a unification of the railroad companies, the coinage of silver over gold and the creation of a gradual income tax as they believed it would move the economy. Even though they never reached the presidency, the Populists did obtain some seats in Congress and became governors of some states in the nation which made it possible to create regulations in banks and railroads. It was the beginning of improvements for the farmer community. 1894: Pullman Strike In the year 1894, railroad workers were upset because of cuts they had received in their wages and formed the Pullman Strike. It was leaded by Eugene Debs, who became one of the mayor leaders of anti transportation company unions and was part of the formation of the Socialist Party in the country. The strike didn’t succeed as it was never supported by the AFL and President Cleveland had to intervene with troops into the matter. This is the perfect example of the corruption and social issues that lied under the golden carpet of the Gilder Age. It showed the division between labor and government and how problems between them where increasing as arms became necessary. 1896 The Election of President William McKinley As a candidate for the presidential election of 1896, Bryan gave a speech called the “Cross of Gold” in which he supported the coinage of silver. There was much more silver than gold in the country and the fact that money was based on this less expensive mineral would have benefitted the country. Even though it would have devaluated the coin, it also increased the amount of money in circulation which would have eased the economic crisis that was taking place. In his speech he said: “You shall not press down upon the brow of labor this crown of thorns. You shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold” (Hippocampus: US History Lesson 51, the Agrarian Reform). Even though he was initially the Democrat candidate, his idea of coinage earned him the vote of the Populist Party, mainly conformed of farmers who also demanded the same reform. The presidential election of 1896 was one that was fought between two strong candidates. The first was William Jennings Bryan who was supported by the Democratic and Populist Party and William McKinley who became the candidate for the Republican Party. McKinley won the election as he was a strong supporter of the high tariffs and won the votes of the industrialists. Beside he was one of the first presidential candidates to break with the traditions and took a front porch campaign in which thousands of people would sit to see his abilities as a public speaker. The times were changing for America and know the power lid under the hands of the big business, not the common people.
His first term is characterized by a tremendous economic recovery from the crisis in which the country was since the 1890’s. After four years of potential improvements and the extra benefit of adding Theodore Roosevelt as his vice-president, McKinley won him the re-election in the year 1900 where he defited Bryan once again. A group of U.S. citizens were in disagreement with the imperialistic character that the nation had taken in the past few years, especially the control over the Philippines. All from different classes of people, clergymen, industrialists and labor leaders among some, doubted the constitutionality of having colonies in other parts of the world. If the U.S.A. was a democratic nation in which everyone enjoyed the right of freedom, why shouldn’t other parts of the world should too? Why should they be controlled by a country that believes in freedom and equal rights for everyone? This league reached its most important point before the end of the 19th century and was strongest in the North of the country. Actions as the Treaty of Versailles created a low in the popularity and power of the Anti-Imperialist League. The United States had been part of a corrupt society for more than 40 decades during the Gilden Age and as this period came to end, it meant the beginning for a new one, the Progressive Era. The Progressive era is well known for its ideals and how they had an impact on the country as it took reforms to improve the social and political conditions of society. The middle class was probable the most involved in this era as they wanted to end with the injustices given by the big and powerful trusts. The first Progressive movements were spread through the use of news papers and magazines. A young group of men, who received the name of muckrakers, wrote controversial articles about the situation of corruption such as child labor and the control corporations had over government. One of the first Progressives was Robert La Follete, the governor of the state of Wisconsin at the time who took Progressive Reforms at a state scale. These reforms got to its highest point when Theodore Roosevelt was elected president. The Progressivisms movement accomplished an improvement in the American society as they made a more democratic and more united country in which education was promoted and the division in social classes was softening. Theodore Roosevelt from New York City became president after the murder of McKinley of which he was vice president. In 1904 he became president by his own means and one of the best known in the history of the United States with his idea of “carrying a big stick”. He was a Progressive leader who fought for a Square Deal for all the Americans, a deal that would benefit everyone as much as possible. He was the first president to act as an arbitrary in a labor dispute and the first to take the imperialistic reforms to a higher level. The Roosevelt Corollary that was given in his annual speech, the year of his election, talked about reinforcing the Monroe Doctrine; there for the U.S. would be the only nation to have control over Latin America with the purpose of restoring military and financial order. Among his most notable recognitions are the policy anti-trusts which earned him the name of the “Trust Buster”. He also outstands in areas of the improvement of consumer protection and the beginning of conservation of natural resources. As one of the most influential and revolutionary presidents of all times, Teddy Roosevelt set a great example for future presidents and the development of the United States. William H. Tarf was Teddy Roosevelt’s successor. He has chosen him as a way to keep control over the oval office without the necessity of being there. Besides he considered that Tarf would be perfect to continue with his Progressive reforms. Still he wasn’t nearly what was expected. Tarf began his term by increasing the tariffs on most products which was a big disappointment for progresivist who had fought to balance the situation among social classes. All wasn’t lost as Tarf was able to break down some bad trusts that were still part of the country, but this wasn’t enough to keep him in office and in 1912, he would lose the White House to Woodrow Wilson. Woodrow Wilson became a presidential candidate for the election of 1912 with a campaign that caught the popularity of the people. He promised a decrease in the tariffs, banking reforms and stronger anti-trust legislations. The election was between three candidates, Tarf, Roosevelt who decided to run again and Wilson. The differences between Tarf and Roosevelt split the Republican Party causing Wilson to win very easily. Wilson stepped into power only two years before the beginning of the Great War. At the beginning, he had adopted a neutrality policy in which he supported none of the countries in battle but still exported goods to Britain. This would cause a lot of trouble for the nation and they would soon be dragged into the war. In the year 1913, the year after Wilson’s election, the brand new president, passed the Underwood Tariff, a tariff that reduced in rates and graduated the federal income tax. The success of the tariff leaded to the formation of the 16th amendment which stated that “Congress has power to lay and collect income taxes”. That same year, the 17th amendment was ratified. This made legal the election of senators by popular vote.
The History Behind the Country 1500's: Protestant Reformation and Separatist Movement 1607: Foundation of Jamestown 1613: Foundation of New York 1618: Head Right System In the 1500's, the Protestant Reformation took place, thus, King Henry the VIII broke off from the Catholic Church. The name "puritan" came to be used to describe members of the Church of England who wished to purify the church but not break away from it. New ideas raised concerning how to win over the kingdom of heaven as well as groups within the church. Puritans believed there were those who were damned and those who were, by god’s will, chosen to live in heaven. Soon this gap grew wider as those saved neglected to be with the damned and following these ideals fled to America to practice their religion as they pleased. In the year 1607, the first English settlement in the New World was founded. In 1606, three ships from the Virginia Company arrived at the Chesapeake Bay as an economic venture. As an era in which the wealth of the countries was measured by how much territory was under their control and how much gold they had, these ships came full of young men who were searching for richness. At the beginning, this group of Englishmen had a really hard time adjusting. They weren’t used to work for food and as the winter time came, many of them died of hunger. Along with that the fact that all of them were men didn't give great space for reproduction. In the next few months, more people started to arrive and made the foundation of the first official colony. It grew with time to become the first colony in the history of the United States and left a mark in the world as it led to a period of conquering in which vast territories of the New World that once belonged to native Americas grew under the control of one of the world's greatest nations, Britain. Founded by the Dutch, Charles II gave New Amsterdam to his brother, Duke of York, which he renamed, New York. The Dutch struggled to maintain the power of New York but Britain took full control in 1674. Although it was taken over, the Swedish roots remained in the territory. They can be seen in the variety of people, the speaking and the architecture that can still be appreciated in the city. 1619: Origins of Slavery 1620: Foundation of Plymouth 1623: Foundation of New Hampshire 1623: Foundation of Maine 1628: Foundation of Massachusetts 1630: The Great Migration Plymouth was the second British settlement in the territories of the New World. Founded by the English separatists, it became a haven for British people who sought religious freedom from the Church of England. Many of this people left for other countries in Europe, but a large number of them came all the way across the Atlantic Ocean and gave birth to the second settlement which would later become in part of the colony of Massachusetts. Founded by puritans, when the pilgrims arrived to New England, they were the first ones who settled in Massachusetts. Pilgrims started to explore the land until they came across a Wampanoeg Indian called Samoset, he introduces Squato, another Indian which spoke English, and taught them how to survive on their own. A group of English seeking religious freedom and fearing the future of their faith in England's future, proposed to the King and Queen, to let them settle in the new world and create the Massachusetts Bay thousand more than twenty thousand people left England separated along the east coast of the United States. These people would then become the founders of the 13 colonies and a prosperous nation. 1630's: The Emerging of the Tobacco 1634: Foundation of Maryland 1635: Foundation of Connecticut Chesapeake was immensely receptive to the cultivation of tobacco and soon enough it grew to be a massive and vital enterprise with profitable incomes. However, the intensive cultivation of the product damaged the soil and increased a demand for land inhabited by Indians. Soon these lands were gathered through diverse battles and the Native Americans were put to work as slaves in the plantations. As the demand grew so did the production and with time the Indians were no longer enough. Hence, Head Right System was implemented and further on these laborious and tedious tasks would begin the slave trade. 1636: Foundation of Rhode Island 1638: Foundation of New Haven 1638: Foundation of Delaware 1644: Congregational Church Founded by Roger Williams. Roger Williams was banned from Massachusetts because he said that government and religion shouldn't mix, so after living with the Indians one winter, he bought Rhode Island and founded it.
Puritans from Wethersfield and New Haven established the first congregational church. With their insistence on the independence of local bodies, they became important in many reform movements, including those for abolition of slavery and women's suffrage. 1649: Act of Toleration 1653: Foundation of the Carolinas 1675: King Phillips War 1676: Bacon's Rebellion Founded by Virginians. Virginian colonists started to settle in the region of North Carolina in 1653 to provide a buffer for the southern frontier. In 1691 Albemarle, the Carolina region was officially recognized by the English crown. During the days of Massasoit, chief of the Wampanoag, the tribe had created a harmonious relationship with the colonists, especially the Pilgrims. In 1662, Metacom, son of Massasoit, known to the colonists as King Philip, became chief. Tensions with Britain increased as the tribe depended more on their goods hence selling more land. June 1675, the tribe attacked a series of settlements, killing dozens of colonists. This attack set off a series of other attacks from both sides until King Philip was betrayed, captured and killed resulting in the end of the war. Bacon's Rebellion was a rebellion in Virginia in 1676 in resentment of the British government and governor Sir William Berkeley. Led by Nathaniel Bacon, this rebellion protested high taxes imposed by the government, the low price on tobacco, and the lack of protection from Native Americans. Nevertheless, its main point was achieving land for the poor white men with no territories of their own. It was extremely unsuccessful since in the end those who participated in the rebellion were hanged as a testimony of what would happen in case of these rebellions. However, it was also one of the first rebellions and would later lead as an example for America's independence. 1681: Foundation of Pennsylvania 1692: Salem Witch Trials 1733: Foundation of Georgia 1733: Molasses Act 1763: Proclamation of 1763 Founded by William Penn. As early as 1647, settlements occurred on what is now Pennsylvania soil by Swedish, Dutch and English settlers in the Delaware River region. In 1681 however, Pennsylvania's colonial status was sealed when approximately the present state of Pennsylvania was granted to William Penn, a member of the Quakers, to offset a debt owed to Penn's father. He attracted settlers by providing them with free land and religious tolerance. A group of adolescent girls in Salem, Massachusetts, claimed to have been bewitched by certain older women. A hysterical witch-hunt was created leading to the league lynching in 1692 of twenty individuals, 19 women were hanged and one was pressed to death. It ended in 1693 when the governor alarmed by an accusation against his own wife, and prohibited any further trials. The last of the thirteen colonies, was founded by Oglethorpe and others with the purpose of acting as a buffer colony between the Carolinas and the Spanish colonies in the South. The Molasses Act was one of the many acts passed by the British in the 1700's in an attempt to gain stronger control of the colonies. Under this act, colonists were forced to pay a tax on the importation of goods including molasses, sugar, and rum. This enraged the colonists but they were able to mostly evade this tax. 1765: Stomp Act 1773: Boston Tea Party 1775: Battle of Bunker Hill July 4, 1776: Declaration of Independence 1778: French American Alliance 1781: Articles of Confederation 1787: Three-Fifths Compromise 1787: North West Ordinance Thirteen independent states were connected in joint action to deal with common problems, such as foreign affairs. The congress was dominant; each state had one vote so that meant that if there were 68,000 Rhode Islanders, it was the same thing as ten times Virginia. All bills dealing with subjects of importance requires the support of each nine states. And any amendment of the Articles themselves would have to have a unanimous ratification. In spite of their defects, the Articles of confederation were very important towards our present constitution. The clearly outlined the general powers that were used by the central government, such as making treaties and making a postal service, they kept alive the ideal of union and held the states together, as well as provided the system of the 3 branches used today in the USA's governmental system. It determined that each slave would be counted as a 3/5 of a person for the purposes of apportioning taxes and representation. The compromise granted disproportionate political power to South slave states. 1787: Ratification of the Constitution of the United States of America 1791: Bill of Rights 1798: Alien Laws 1803: Louisiana Purchase In May of 1787, the State House met in Philadelphia to go over the Articles of Confederation. Initially with the intention of modifying this, they ended up creating a completely new document which became the one and only constitution of United States. Called upon the colonies to draft a new constitution, the continental congress was asking them to summon themselves into becoming new states. The democratic character of the new state legislatures was vividly reflected by the presence of many members from recently enfranchised poorer western districts and was signed by 49 men among them, George Washington. After the Americans won the American Revolution, a new constitution was thoughtfully written. Many colonies though, feared the new constitution would leave America much like it was when they were in control of the British and they would not ratify the new constitution. So in order to please the colonies, the Bill of Rights was written which included the first ten amendments. These amendments included a series of limitations of power on the United States government such as the protection of natural rights like liberty and property. Thomas Jefferson both pacifist and anti-entanglement, was ready. Louisiana in the grip of Spain had no real threat to America because they could seize the territory when the time was right. But Louisiana was being controlled by Napoleon. The U.S would have to fight to dislodge him, and because the Americans were not that strong, they would have to find allies. All of a sudden Napoleon decides to sell Louisiana and burry his dream of a New World. So the United States bought Louisiana for $15 million.
1807: Embargo Act 1811: Construction of the National Road 1812: War of 1812 1820: Missouri Compromise 1914: Clayton Anti-Trust Act 1916: Jones Act 1917: Espionage Act 1917: Zimmerman Note 1917: United States Enters WW I 1917-1918: Forging a War Economy 1918: Battle of Chateau 1918: Workers In Wartime 1918: Wilson’s Fourteen Points 1919: Volstead Act 1919: Women's Suffrage 1919: Versailles Peace Treaty 1919: Ratification of the 18th Amendment 1924: Dawes Plan 1922: Fordney-McCumber Tariff Law 1929: Agricultural Marketing Act sets up Federal Farm Board 1929: Stock Market Crashes 1929-1939: Great Depression 1932: Reconstruction Finance Corporation is Established by Hoover 1933: Agricultural Adjustment Act 1933: Roosevelt Begins New Deal 1933: Civilian Conservation Corps 1934: Indian Reorganization Act 1935: U.S. Neutrality Act 1935: Social Security Act: 1939: World War II Begins 1941: Japan Surprise Attack Pearl Harbor 1941: U.S. Declares War Against Japan 1942: Congress of Racial Equality 1945: U.S. Bombs Japan 1945: United Nations Is Formed 1946: Philippines are given their independence The major reason would be the sinking of the Lusitania, an British cruise/transport ship, bound for Britain from New York. Another one would be the German U-boat ring sought to sink all supply ships headed for Britain in order to starve the island. It sank the Lusitania as part of its efforts. 1195 people died, including 128 Americans. In a economic view, the U.S. had huge economic investments with the British and French. If they were to lose, then they would not be able to pay the U.S. debt back (amounting to about two billion dollars while Germany only borrowed a mere 27 million). Mobilization relied more n the heated emotions of patriotism than on cool majesty of laws. The largely voluntary and somewhat crazy character of economic war organization testified unequivocally to ocean-insulated America’s safe distance from fighting. As the larder of democracy, America had to feed itself and its allies. The one in charge of the food was Herbert C. Hoover, he was already known as a hero for making a massive charitable drive to feed the starving people of war-racked Belgium. The country broke out in a rash of vegetable “victory gardens” as patriots hoed their way to victory in backyards and vacant lots. Despite the Wilson administration’s preference for voluntary means of mobilizing the economy, the government on occasion reluctantly exercised their sovereign power, notably when it took over the nation’s railroads with the following of the traffic snarls in late 1917´s. As the slogan goes, “Labor Will Win the War,” American workers sweated their way to victory. There was a time in which they were driven by the War Department, “work or fight,” which threatened any unemployed male with being immediately drafted, which was a powerful discouragement to go on strike. But for the most part, government tried to treat labor fairly. The National War Labor Board was created and was chaired by the former president Taft. While pressing employers to grant concessions to labor, including high wages and the eight-hour day, the board stopped short of supporting labors most important demand which was a government guarantee of the right to organize into unions. Wilson is very well known for his Fourteen Points, ideals that talked about the regulation that should be taken worldwide at the end of the war. Among these are the freedom of the seas, all the nations should have the right to share them, National diplomacy, the formation of a group of countries that would maintain peace in the world, the League of Nations and national’s self determination. Despite them, the U.S. never joined the League of Nations as it might have limited the sovereignty of the nation. The suffragist movement in the United States was an outgrowth of the general women's rights movement that officially began with the Seneca Falls Convention of 1848. Several leading figures in the antislavery movement had also begun to question the political and economic place of women in a society that claimed to be a democracy. Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, Martha C, Wright, and Mary Ann McClintock issued a call for a convention concerning the rights of women. The convention adopted a "Declaration of Principles," deliberately modeled on the Declaration of Independence, which stated, "We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men and women are created equal. . . ." In addition to the Declaration of Principles, the Seneca Convention also asserted that women should have the right to preach, to be educated, to teach, and to earn a living. The Treaty of Versailles was the peace settlement signed after World War I. The treaty was signed at the vast Versailles Palace near Paris, between Germany and the Allies. The three most important politicians there were David Lloyd George, Georges Clemenceau and Woodrow Wilson. The Versailles Palace was used because of its size; hence there were many people to sign. At the end of the 18th century almost no one believed alcohol to be a dangerous or destructive substance. However, by the end of the 19th century temperance movement-advocating abstinence from liquor had come into effect. The temperance movement demonized alcohol and became the largest enduring middle-class mass movement of the 19th century. By mid-century, many temperance supporters came to believe that some kind of alcohol prohibition was necessary. During this time the first wave of state prohibition campaigns occurred and several states passed prohibition laws. The second wave of prohibition attempts occurred in the 1880s and all but a handful were repealed. The end of World War I heralded a new era in the United States. It was an era of enthusiasm, confidence, and optimism. A time when inventions such as the airplane and radio made anything seem possible A time when Prohibition renewed confidence in the productivity of the common man. It is in such times of optimism that people take their savings out from under their savings and out of banks and invest it. In the 1920s, many invested in the stock market. As more people invested in the stock market, stock prices began to rise. Then, prices were rising in the stock market that made even more people to invest. And by 1928, a stock market boom had begun. When someone did not have the money to pay the full price of stocks, they could buy stocks "on margin." On March 25, 1929, the stock market suffered a mini-crash but people ignored it.. Steel production went down; house construction slowed; and car sales waned. On the morning of Thursday, October 24, 1929, stock prices went down. Vast numbers of people were selling their stocks. A crowd gathered outside of the New York Stock Exchange on Wall Street, stunned at the downturn. Rumors circulated of people committing suicide. Although the United States had experienced several depressions before the stock market crash on October 27, 1929, none had been as severe nor as long lasting before "Black Thursday" struck Wall Street. At first, economists and leaders thought this was a mild bump. By spring of 1933, when Franklin D. Roosevelt took the oath of office, unemployment had risen from 8 to 15. The poor were hit the hardest. By 1932, Harlem had an unemployment rate of 50 percent and property owned or managed by blacks fell from 30 percent to 5 percent in 1935. President Hoover believed the helping would do more harm than good and that local governments and private charities should provide relief to the unemployed and homeless. Franklin D. Roosevelt, after assuming the presidency, promoted a wide variety of federally funded programs aimed at restoring the American economy, helping relieve the suffering of the unemployed, and reforming the system so that such a severe crisis could never happen again. However, while the New Deal did help restore the GNP and did introduce basic banking and welfare reforms, Franklin D. Roosevelt refused to run up the deficits that ending the depression required. One of the acts established by the New Deal in which farmers were paid not to farm. As the Great Depression advanced, the government needed the prices of agricultural products to grow and the way to do it was to decrease the production. Based on the idea that higher prices where to improve the situation of the farmers, it was one of the many ideals established under the F. D. Roosevelt’s administration to overcome the depression. The term New Deal was coined during Franklin Roosevelt’s 1932 Democratic presidential nomination acceptance speech, when he said, "I pledge you, I pledge myself, to a new deal for the American people." Roosevelt summarized the New Deal as a "use of the authority of government as an organized form of self-help for all classes and groups and sections of our country." One of the most complicated and far-reaching laws ever to pass Congress, it provided for federal-state unemployment insurance. To provide insurance for old age, specified categories of retired workers were to receive regular payments from Washington. Provision was also made for the blind, the physically handicapped, delinquent children, and other dependents. It was largely inspired by the example of some of the more highly industrialized nations of Europe. By September 1941 the Japanese had practically completed secret plans for a huge assault against Malaya, the Philippines, and the Netherlands East Indies, to be coordinated with a crushing blow on the Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbor in the Hawaiian Island of Oahu. Behind them they left chaos, 2,403 dead, 188 destroyed planes and a crippled Pacific Fleet that included 8 damaged or destroyed battleships. In one stroke the Japanese action silenced the debate that had divided Americans ever since the German defeat of France left England alone in the fight against the Nazi terror. On December 8, 1941, on a national radio broadcast, U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt (1882-1945) begins with the following words: "Yesterday, December 7, 1941 -- a date which will live in infamy -- the United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan." The president requests a declaration of war against Japan. Radios all over Washington State are turned on to his speech. The day before, Japan had attacked Pearl Harbor. The Allies demanded unconditional surrender of the Axis. The Allies, led by the United States, rolled up the Japanese expansion island by island. When Guam was taken, the Allies had a base from which stage an invasion. The estimates of American casualties for an invasion of mainland Japan was in excess of 1 million Americans. The United States dropped two atomic bombs to save American lives and speed the end of the war. Prior to using the atomic bomb, Japan was given ultimatums to surrender along with warnings of the dire consequences. The Japanese government ignored the warnings. While the use of the atomic bomb was a technological and strategic turning point in both WWII and all future diplomatic and strategic activities, there were more people killed, maimed, and injured during the Tokyo firebombing campaigns than by the atomic bomb. The United Nations was founded in response to the two World Wars, to allow the countries of the world to communicate with each other, and work together (collective security) to prevent future wars and conflicts. The United Nations officially came into existence on 24 October 1945, when China, France, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the United States and a majority of other signatories had ratified the Charter During WWII, Japan took over ruling the Filipino islands, for a period of three years, from 1942 until the United States re-invaded and took control of the Philippines once again in 1945.With the United States having fought in WWII and not wishing to continue to battle the Filipino people who were only fighting for their own freedom, another treaty was decreed between the United States and the Filipino people on July 4th, 1946. As part of the treaty, the United States military was withdrawn completely after assisting the Filipino people in establishing a governmental system of their own. Bibliografy
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By: Natalia Chaves isabella gonzalez Maria Paula Martinez
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