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The American War of Independence
Transcript of The American War of Independence
Britain needed to save money,but they also wanted to keep troops in the colonies.To pay for the troops,Britain raised the colonists taxes.
The colonists refused to pay,because they were not allowed to elect representatives in British government.
"No taxation without representation" What do the colonists do to protest ? Payback for the "tea party" ? The United States was called the Thirteen Colonies and belonged to Britain before it became a country. The Tea Act-1773 In 1773,British Parliament granted a monopoly of trade to the,financially struggling,British East India Company.
In other words,Britain made this company the only people that could legally sell tea,and control all of the tea imported into the colonies.They also taxed the people for all the tea imported into the colonies . The colonists,already angered by the Tea Act,decided to protest.
On December 16,1773,after officials in Boston refused to send three shiploads of taxed tea back to Britain,a group of colonists,disguised as first nations got into the ships and destroyed the tea by throwing it into Boston Harbor.
The colonists thought that the Tea Act violated their rights as Englishmen to"No taxation without representation,"which is,to be taxed by their own elected representatives or leaders.Due to this event the colonists prevented the tea in the ships to be dropped off at three other colonies. The American War of Independence The King of Britain passed the Proclamation of 1763.This proclamation forbade any settlements west of the Appalachian mountains.This angered the colonists because they helped fight for it in the French and Indian War. Taxes Raised-1763 Proclamation of 1763 : Quartering act-1765 The King George III sent soldiers to the colonies to 'protect' them from the French.To pay for the protection the colonists were getting,the colonists were ordered to give supplies,housing,and transportation to the British soldiers.This was a way for the King to get indirect tax from the colonists.In other words,the King was charging extra tax without the colonists knowing it is extra tax. The stamp act was an act that made all colonists to pay a tax for all legal documents,licenses,commercial contracts,newspapers,pamphlets,and playing cards.The money collected from the stamp act was used to pay for the soldiers protecting the frontier.The colonists,angry at this act,boycotted British products so that Britain would take the act back.This act was repealed in 1766 because of the boycotting. The Stamp Act-1765 Townshend Act-1767 After the Stamp Act was repealed,a man named Charles Townshend put indirect tax on items like lead,glass,paper,and tea.The indirect tax was collected at the sea ports before the goods were taken to the stores in the colonies.When the colonists bought the goods the tax was already included in the price.The colonists eventually found out about the indirect tax and once again they boycotted British products. Boston Massacre-1770 On March 5,1770,a crowd of people started harassing a British soldier in front of the Customs House.The soldier called for some help and 9 more soldiers went to help him.The crowd hurled snowballs and insults at the soldiers.During the commotion,somebody yelled "Fire!".The soldiers fired many shots and in the end a total of 5 townspeople were killed.This made the people of Boston furious and they insisted that the soldiers be tried and executed for the killings. In 1774,some laws were passed .These laws were called,The Coercive Acts or Intolerable Acts.They were passed due to Massachusetts constantly resisting the parliamentary rule and also as discipline for the "Tea Party". The Boston Harbor would be closed until the colony paid the British East India Company back for all the tea lost in the "tea party". The Quartering act now applied to all publicly occupied buildings,meaning that soldiers were now taken care of by public buildings as well as colonist families. British Officials could only be tried and punished in Britain for any crimes they are accused of. Colonial Charters,which stated rules and set up government,were canceled.The British Governors now completely controlled town meetings. The border of Canada was extended west into the colonies of Connecticut, Massachusetts ,and Virginia. The First Continental Congress-1774 The colonists got together to fight back after Britain made the Intolerable Acts. The Congress in America voted and decided to cut off colonial trade with Britain until British Parliament canceled the Intolerable Acts. Congress also voted to start training men for war,because war with Britain was unavoidable. Some Representatives had a meeting in Philadelphia to figure out any arrangements they could make with Britain so they wouldn't have to fight. The Parliament in Britain refused to accept or pay attention to any of their requests. http://www.havefunwithhistory.com/activities/btp.html
http://www.slideshare.net/aadavis/american-revolution-5428947 Battle of Lexington and concord On April 19,1775,the Americans,led by Joseph Warren, fought the battle of concord by taking over the Old North bridge and not letting it go.Shortly after,in the battle of Lexington, the British won when their leader Major Pitcairn got the help of General Hugh Percy. This was the first battle in the American Revolution. This was the beginning of a war. On June 16,1775,Britain captured both Breed's and Bunker hill and won the battle.The battle was won but Britain,out of 2,200 troops,lost 268 men and 828 were wounded.America lost 115 men and 305 were wounded.This battle made colonists and British understand that this war with the colonies was going to be expensive,hard,and long,because of all the sacrifices made. http://www.sonofthesouth.net/revolutionary-war/political/revolutionary-war-flag.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/91/The_death_of_general_warren_at_the_battle_of_bunker_hill.jpg/300px-The_death_of_g Websites: Pictures: Bunker hill http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-9wuxJqcM_KU/TWV6Z_KgqFI/AAAAAAAAADk/wXtmWzC5WBc/s1600/Battle_of_bunker_hill_by_Percy_Moran.jpg http://www.britishbattles.com/images/trenton/streets-trenton.jpg Battle of Trenton On December 26,1776,General George Washington and the continental army crossed the Delaware.The continental army went to Trenton and defeated Hessian mercenaries.The continental army fights a second battle on January 2,to hold back the British,while the main continental army march into Princeton.This battle is what turns the war to America's favor. Major battles in the American Revolution http://www.nps.gov/nr/twhp/wwwlps/lessons/79oriskany/79images/79covercl.jpg
Battle of Oriskany http://www.slideshare.net/jmerrill427/major-battle-of-the-american-revolution American Colonel Peter Gansevoorte takes over Fort Stanwix,and stationed 700 troops from New York and Massachusetts there.General Barry St. Leger left Canada in July 1777 and arrived in Oswego,New York. St. Leger left Oswego on July 26,to go join Burgoyne. St. Leger led a force of 700-800 British regulars,Canadians,Mohawk Valley Tories,and Hanau (German) mercenaries. St. Leger was later joined with Joseph Brant and his 800 American Indian Tories. On August 2 St. Leger's path was blocked by Fort Stanwix (renamed Fort Schuyler by the rebels). St. Leger decided that the Fort was too strong to attack,so on August 3 he demanded that Gansevoort surrendered.After Gansevoort refused to surrender St. Leger started preparing for a siege.On August 6,while 800 colonial militiamen under General Nicholas Herkimer were trying to go save Fort Schuyler,they were ambushed 2 miles west of Oriskany creek by 1,200 British and their Iroquois allies.In the end,both sides had heavy amounts of casualties. St. Leger couldn't take over the fort so he went back to Oswego on August 22.
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/432690/Battle-of-Oriskany Battle of Saratoga General "Gentleman Johnny" Burgoyne had about 10,000 men (mostly British regulars).He had left French Canada in the summer of 1777,planning to take Albany New York and take control of the Hudson River Valley to cut off New England from the rest of the colonies.In the spring,the British gained control of forts at Crown Point and Ticonderoga.The Americans retreated,but they delayed the British by cutting off roads,destroying bridges,and tormenting British troops with sniper fire.All this slowed the British from getting passed the ends of lakes Champlain and George.On October 17,1777,Burgoyne's force was blocked by General Horatio Gates and Burgoyne surrendered to north of the Hudson valley town,Saratoga. Battle of Yorktown On August 21,1781,General Washington began moving his troops south so that when French ships sailed to Chesapeake Bay,he could trap Cornwallis' army at Yorktown. While they marched south,the French Admiral De Grasse' fleet arrived at Chesapeake Bay. De Grasse fought against Admiral Thomas Graves and took control of Chesapeake Bay.Cornwallis was now helpless.On September 28,Washington and Rochambeau,along with Lafayette's troops and 3,000 of De Grassi's men,arrived at Yorktown.Cornwallis had 17,000 men.The two sides soon began to fight.Cornwallis suggested surrendering in October 17,and by October 19 all the papers were signed so he was officially surrendered. http://www.enchantedlearning.com/usa/statesbw/13colonies/13coloniesbw.GIF http://us.cdn3.123rf.com/168nwm/nito500/nito5001008/nito500100800116/7600825-an-sphere-with-question-marks-of-different-colors-on-a-white-background.jpg http://tm112.community.uaf.edu/files/2010/08/royalproclamation1763.jpg http://www.cr-cath.pvt.k12.ia.us/lasalle/Resources/8th%20Rev%20War%20Websites/Mitchell%20Josh%20Keane%20Andrew%20Rev%20War/Rev%20war%20Mitchell%20Nelsen/images/stamp%20act.gif http://www.ushistory.org/declaration/related/images/massacre.jpg http://moranmustangs.org/lizzie13/files/2012/10/teaaaaaaa-1pw0uo3.jpg http://katefletcher.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/04/questionmark-colour3.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/5/52/Boston_Tea_Party_Currier_colored.jpg/375px-Boston_Tea_Party_Currier_colored.jpg http://www.usfca.edu/fac_staff/conwell/revolution/first.jpg The United States of America has been born. http://techjost.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/06/july-4-fireworks.jpg