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Chapter 4 - The coming of Spain
Transcript of Chapter 4 - The coming of Spain
The first aim of Spain was to spread the Roman Catholic religion. At the time, Spain was the greatest champion of Catholicism in the world. The Spanish king spent vast sums of money to convert more people to Catholicism
by: DIONISIO B. CHAVEZ JR.
In the 16th century, the Philippines was invaded by the Spaniards. They made our country into a colony of Spain. A colony is a country that is ruled by foreigners from another land. The coming of the Spaniards changed our history. Through Spain we became Catholic in religion. We also got a new and more advanced culture from Europe and Mexico. But, for the first time in our history, we lost our freedom and independence to foreigners. It took more than 300 years before we could have our freedom back again.
Why the Spaniards Came?
Magellan went to Spain and gave same proposal to King Ferdinand and Queen Isabel of which both leaders got interested and readily approved his proposal. So immediately an expedition was ordered to accompany Magellan with five ships and 65 men.
What was the real cause of Ferdinand Magellan in coming the Philippines?
THANK YOU AND GOD BLESS
The second aim of Spain was to get rich. It wanted to control the spice trade in Asia because spices were very much in demand in Europe. If Spain could control the spice trade it would be the richest nation in the world. But it did not succeed in this aim.
The third aim of Spain was to get political glory. When Spain conquered the Philippines in Asia, it became the greatest empire in the world during the 16th century. Philip II was the king to boast that the sun never set on his kingdom, because when it was sunset in Manila it was also sunrise in Madrid, Spain.
The coming of Magellan to the Philippines was not an accident. He really planned and wanted to find the Philippines because he heard that it was a very rich land. So Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese explorer, asked the Portuguese king, King Manuel, to finance a project to sail to the Philippines. But the king only laughed at Magellan and told him to go away.
RIVALRY BETWEEN PORTUGAL
In 1493, Pope Alexander VI issued four papal bulls. One of these divided the world between Spain and Portugal. In 1494, these countries made an agreement in the Treaty of Tordicillas shifting the demarcation line made by the Pope
In 1529, they quarreled again over ownership of the Moluccas. So they made a new agreement in the Treaty of Zaragoza, to fix a new demarcation line. The Spanish king sold his rights to the Moluccas to the Portuguese king. But this was a big mistake for Portugal. It did not know that Moluccas and the Philippines were really included on the side of the line belonging to Portugal. So Portugal only bought what it really owned.
Portugal really owned the Philippines and came here ahead of Spain. But the Portuguese dis not make us a colony. This story is one of the mystery of our history.
FIRST MASS AT BUTUAN:
Magellan and his men saw the heights of Samar on March 16, 1521. This date is celebrated as the European “discovery” of the International Date Line, and they should have added one day to their calendar.
1. Limasawa was the name given by the American historians and some Spanish historians who famous books later
2. The place is described as an “island,” and Butuan is not an island.
3. The latitude position is given as 9 & 2/3 degree and that is closer to Limasawa than to Butuan, which lies at 9 degree latitude only.
4. Magellan was selling to unknown seas and he bumped in to Limasawa after Homonhon. Magellan was never in Mindanao.
5. The relics of ancient balangai boats and golds in Butuan could have come from Limasawa.
6. Limasawa is closer to Cebu where Magellan went next.
After seeing Samar, the Spaniards landed at the island of Homonhon in Leyte Gulf on March 17. Here they saw the first Filipinos who brought them food. Magellan and his men had been starving until then.
From Homonhon they were driven by a storm to Masao, Butuan in Agusan del Norte reaching it on March 28. There they found a rich Filipino kingdom with plenty of Food, gold, forests, ricefields and mountains.
At Butuan, two kings, Raha Kolambu and Raha Siago met Magellan, In the finest tradition of Filipino hospitality, they welcomed the Spaniards. The foreign visitors were generously fed with lots of rice, chickens, pigs, and fruits, all served on the finest Chinese porcelain.
To seal their new friendship, Kolambu and Magellan made the traditional blood compact, known as “Sandugo”. Each man made a small cut on his left arm and let his blood drip into a glass of wine. Then they crossed arms and took a sip of the cup with the blood of the other. It was the first blood compact by a Filipino with a white man.
Another important event took place at Butuan, the first mass was held on the shore of Masao, Butuan on Easter morning, March 31, 1521. It was said by Father Pedro de Valderama, the Spanish chaplain. Then, at sunset of the same day, Magellan planted a huge wooden cross on the top of a hill overlooking the sea.
1. The name of the place in the original records of Magellan was only three syllables – Masao, Masana, Mazzana. It was said as four syllables (Limasawa) only by the colonial historians who made a mistake about the place.
2. Butuan is a delta- like island surrounded by a bay and rivers. It could have appeared as an island at the same time.
3. The latitude position is given as 9 degree exact in two original records and 9 & 2/3 degrees in two other records of the journey. The 9 degrees latitude is the correct one because that was the position at Magellan’s logbook. There is no island at 9 & 2/3 degrees north.
4. Magellan had a map and was looking for an “island” at 9 degrees latitude that the map said had much gold. The shape of the island in his map looked like Mindanao. Moreover his cousin Francisco Serrano was stranded in Mindanao in 1512, four years before, and told him to look for that island. Magellan was looking for Mindanao, and he found it by landing at Butuan.
5. Butuan was an old settlement with relics dating to the 4th century AD. Magellan met two rich kings who were experienced in trading and had impressive Chinese porcelain and gold jewelry. Limasawa does not have any archaeological relics to show it was ever a rich kingdom. The relics in Butuan also show ancient houses, burial places, and mining tools. Houses, cemeteries and mines do not travel.
6. Butuan has more contacts with Cebu than Limasawa has. Even today, the ferry boat from Cebu goes to Butuan. There is no direct contact between Cebu and Limasawa. The Cebuanos and Butuanons speak the same language and have many relations. The Cebuanos and Limasawans do not speak the same language and do not have contacts. Magellan' actual voyage was longer, according to the documents.
Magellan’s Voyage to Cebu
They were guided by Raha Kulambo andarrived Cebu on Sunday April 7, 1521. King Humabonwas convinced by Raha Kulambo to allow Magellan and his men land in Cebu.
Lapulapu Defeats Magellan
Magellan wanted all Filipino kings in Cebu and nearby islands to surrender to Spain. But there was one brave Filipino ruler who defied him. He was King Lapulapu of Mactan, a little island near Cebu.
One day, the other king of Mactan, Zula asked Magellan for help in destroying Lapulapu. The two kings of Mactan were bitter enemies. Magellan agreed to help Zula, as he wanted to kill Lapulapu which he attacked on April 27, 1521.
Magellan boasted to the Cebuanos that he did not need their help in fighting Lapulapu. He told them to stay in their boats and watch them bet Lapulapu and his men. So with 60 men, Magellan attacked Lapulapu’s kingdom.
The battle was short but very bloody. Fighting for their land and liberty, Lapulapu and his warriors fought like lions. Magellan and his men were beaten. So Magellan ordered his men to retreat to their boats. Unfortunately, Magellan was wounded in the arm, leg and face. As the Spaniards were retreating, Lapulapu’s men surrounded Magellan and killed him.
After their defeat at Mactan, the Spaniards returned sadly to Cebu. But they lost face. The Cebuanos did not respect them anymore. The Spaniards also became abusive. Duarte Barbosa, one of the new commanders, maltreated Enrique, Magellan’s Malay slave. So Enrique plotted with King Humabon to kill the Spaniards.
Spaniards Escaped to Spain
On May 1, 1521 the Spaniards were invited to a feast day by King Humabon. While they were eating and drinking at the feast, the Spaniards were attacked by the Cebuanos. Many Europeans were killed, including Duarte Barbosa and Juan Serrano, the new commanders.
After the Cebu Massacre, the survivors of the expedition quickly left for the south. After visiting Palawan, Brunei, Mindanao, and the Moluccas, they set sail for home. One trip, the Trinidad sailed for Mexico. But it was caught by the Portuguese in the Moluccas. The other ship, the Victoria sailed for Spain via the Indian Ocean and the African Cape. It reached San Lucar, Spain on September 6, 1522 with only 18 survivors.
Results of Magellan’s Voyage
1. It was the first voyage around the world by sea. It proved that the earth was not flat and ships would not fall off when they got to the end of the world.
2. It added to the knowledge about geography. The Europeans learned that the Pacific Ocean is the largest ocean. The Strait of Magellan in South America was discovered. The Europeans also discovered the Philippines and other new lands in Asia. Magellan blazed the trail for a new westward route to the fabulous riches of Asia.
3. It made Spain interested in colonizing the Philippines.
Famous First: First Around the World
The Victoria was the first ship to sail around the world. But who was the first man to go around the world? The three candidates for this honor are:
. The Filipino slave of Magellan, he was a Cebuano. Magellan bought him in Malacca slave market. He was a good servant and became a Catholic. When Magellan went to the Philippines, Enrique acted as interpreter of the expedition. After Magellan died and his men went back to Spain, he remained in Cebu. Some historian say Enrique was the first man to go around the world because he came home when Magellan landed in the Philippines.
2. Ferdinand Magellan.
The Portuguese explorer who planned and led the expedition that sailed around the world. Magellan was in the East before. As a Portuguese soldier in Malacca 1505-1523. because he was killed by Lapulapu in Mactan, he did not return to Spain with his men. But some historians say he was the first man around the world
3. Sebastian del Elcano.
The Spanish ship captain who brought the Victoria and her survivors back to Spain. He was on Magellan’s voyage from start to finish. Although he was one of the mutineers (rebels) at Port Julian, Magellan pardoned him. After Magellan and other leaders died, Elcano led the survivors back to Spain. The Spanish king gave him honor which should have gone to Magellan. Elcano got an annual pension and a coat-of-arms with a picture of the globe saying “prime circumdediste me” (first to sail around me). So some historians say he was the first man around the world.
Why the Philippines Fell to Spain
1. Filipinos at the time of the arrival of Legaspi were
2. The Spanish invaders had a great commander in
the person of Legaspi
3. Although the Filipinos were brave and tenacious,
they could not win against the superior military
arms and know-how of the Spaniards.
4. The Filipinos were won over by the Spanish
missionaries who taught them a better religion
than the barbaric paganism of their ancestors