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Transcript of Tobacco
As a syrup to be swallowed or applied to the gums
Chewed and snuffed
Administered anally as ceremonial enema How the Native Americans Used Tobacco: Psychological Effects Intense effects on CNS
Nicotine effects regions of brain regulating pleasure
This likely contributes to abuse
Pharmacokenetics of nicotine enhance abuse potential
Get effect within 10 seconds of inhaling smoke but goes away within a few minutes which causes smoker to dose more frequently Physical Effects Increases respiration rates at low dose levels
Stimulates receptors in carotid artery that monitors the brain's need for oxygen
Stimulates cardiovascular system by releasing epinephrine
Increases coronary blood flow, heart rate, blood pressure
Raises oxygen requirements of the heart muscles
Sweats, vomiting, mental confusion, diarrhea, breathing difficulty
Virtually impossible to overdose, 60 mg, each cigarette contains 1-2 mg, person get effect before any lethal amount will accumulate Cigarettes More prone to diseases such as:
Aneurysm of the abdominal aorta
Peripheral Artery Disease *picture* Cancer
Lung, bladder, pancreatic, cervical, esophageal, stomach, oral cavity, kidney Bronchopulmonary Disease
Smoking is leading cause
Damages airways and alveoli, causes emphysema, and chronic airway obstruction
Respiratory infections are more severe/prevalent in smokers than nonsmokers Effects on pregnancy
Risk of stillbirth, preterm delivery, low birth weight, sudden infant death syndrome
decrease amount of oxygen to fetus by constriction of blood in uterus/umbilical cord
Reduce amount of blood flow to fetus "Light " Cigarettes
Cigarettes with holes that dilute smoke with air to reduce levels of tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide
Not a benefit because people block holes with lips and fingers, increase puff number, increase amount smoked Electronic Cigarettes
Designed to deliver nicotine as vapor
Can be disguised
FDA hasn't evaluated effectiveness/safety Smokeless Tobacco
Could lead to nicotine addiction/dependence
Adolescents who use are more likely to use cigarettes
Contains 28% carcinogens
Cancer of oral cavity/pancreas
Reduces sperm count/abnormal sperm cells
Recession of gums, gum disease, and tooth decay Secondhand Smoke
Smoke inhaled by passive nonsmokers
Tobacco smoke pollutes air eith 250 toxic chemicals and over 50 carcinogens
Exposure causes 46,000 heart diseases anually in US
3,400 cases of lung cancer among adult nonsmokers in uS How We Use Tobacco Today: Mechanism of Action Nicotine, found in tobacco is an alkaloid
Alkaloids typically produced in plants to discourage animals from eating 2 types of acetylcholine receptors found in neuromuscular junction:
Both are ligand-gated channels
Nicotinic receptor function
responds to acetylcholine to regulate sodium release into cells
responds to both acetylcholine and nicotine Alpha-bungarotoxin
Binds irreversibly to nicotinic receptor
Has higher binding affinity than aceythcholine
Binding to nicotinic receptor ultimately results in increase of dopamine levels Smokers generally have more nicotinic receptors than the average person
Results in need for stronger nicotinic stimulation When smoked, nicotine enters lungs and then absorbed into bloodstream
reaches brain within approximately 10 seconds of inhalation
When chewed or dipped, nicotine is absorbed through mucous lining of mouth Potency/Toxicity of Cigarettes Potency:
Nicotine activates the brain function in regions responsible for regulating feelings of pleasure.
Contributes to the abuse potential of the stimulant
Nicotine increases respiration rate at low levels because it stimulates receptors in the carotid artery (neck) that monitors the brain's need to oxygen
Also, nicotine stimulates the cardiovascular system by releasing epinephrine, which increases blood flow, heart rate, and blood pressure.
Low potency Toxicity:
Nicotine has been used as an insecticide, and at higher concentrations it can be extremely toxic.
Symptoms of nicotine poisoning include vomiting, sweating, mental confusion, diarrhea, and difficulty breathing
Respiratory failure from the paralysis of muscle usually brings on death Margin of Safety Most cigarettes in the US market today contain 10mg or more of nicotine; through smoke, the average smoker takes in 1-2 mg of nicotine from every cigarette
It is virtually impossible to overdose on nicotine, in part because a smoker feels the effects before any lethal amount can accumulate in the body Potency/Toxicity of Smokeless Tobacco Chewing tobacco or snuff causes cancer of the oral cavity and pancreas
Also leads to recession of gums, gum disease, and tooth decay. Potency/Toxicity of Secondhand Smoke Increased attention to secondhand smoke because smokers and non smokers alike breathe in the burning tobacco smoke that pollutes the air.
Exposure to secondhand smoke has serious health consequences. Causes an estimated 46,000 heart disease deaths annually in the US.
Breathing secondhand smoke has immediate harmful effects on the cardiovascular system of non smokers that can increase the risk for a heart attack.
Non smokers who are exposed to secondhand smoke at work or home increase the risk for heart disease by 25-30%
Pregnant women exposed to secondhand smoke have a 20% greater chance of giving birth to a low birthweight baby
Children exposed to secondhand smoke are more likely to develop ear infections, respiratory infections, and more frequent/severe asthma attacks Tobacco and Dependency More than 20 million smokers attempt to quit smoking each year.
Only 7% are able to stay abstinent for at least a year long period
Most resume smoking after day 3
Between 33-50% of people who try cigarettes become regular smokers
That's at least 1 in 3 people who are likely to be dependent
70% would not start smoking if they could do it again Why is it so hard to quit? The reason why tobacco is so difficult to give up is because 90% cigarette smokers smoke at least 5 cigarettes a day
Since nicotine is an addictive substance, your body will get used to its effects and require more just to function normally
Any lss than this dose and you start to feel snappy, on edge, and get an urge to smoke.
Eventually, smoking will feel necessary for the individual just to feel "normal" Tobacco and Withdrawal Symptoms First week of quitting is usually referred to as "hell week"
Symptoms will usually peak at about the 2nd and 3rd day marks
The most common withdrawal symptoms are: Cravings for tobacco
concentration on problems
depression or low mood
anxiety Pipes (2.1 mil)
Smokeless Tobacco (8.6 mil)
Cigars (13.3 mil)
Cigarettes (58.7 mil)
Secondhand Smoke , Amount of nicotine absorption depends on several factors
Exact composition of tobacco used
Density of tobacco packed into cigarette
Length of cigarette smoked
Whether a filter is used and characteristics of the filter
Volume of smoke inhaled
Number of cigarettes smoked throughout the day Types of Tobacco Cigarettes
Light, Regular, and Menthol
Different types of flavors
Chewed in mouth Dip or Snuss
Tobacco that is placed between your gums or upper lip.
Comes in different flavors and cuts of tobacco
Powdered tobacco that you are able to snort
In recent studies, people have started vaporizing their tobacco to subdue the risk of cancer. Skin Rashes and Eczema - Indians used a poultice of tobacco leaves to put on skin inflammations to help soothe and relieve pain.
Toothaches – This poultice could also be placed in the mouth to alleviate pain from toothaches.
Rattlesnake and Insect Bites - Indians believed that the nicotine in the tobacco would help relieve pain as well as help draw out the poison and heal the snake wound.
Toothpaste - In India, powdered tobacco is rubbed on the teeth for cleaning. This method is still used in India and marketed in stores around the country. Therapeutic Usage