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Transcript of Apartheid
(Slide 2&3):Chockshi, Monal et al. "The History of
Apartheid in South Africa." Computers and the Apartheid Regime in South Africa. Stanford University. 1995. Web. 11 April 2013.<http://www-cs-students.stanford.edu/~cale/cs201/apartheid.hist.html>
Between 1940 and 1990
Whites attempted to enforce complete segregation.
Ensured white dominance and oppressed the black people in their native land.
After independence from European influences, the Afrikaner National Party gained the most support.
Afrikaner National Party created the concept of apartheid.
Blacks and colored people were moved to special reservations and forced to live in poverty.
Blacks were considered to be the lowest social class.
Colored people were still oppressed, but they had more money and slightly better living conditions than blacks.
Apartheid also rose because of the economical benefits.
Africa's production of goods was highly dependent on cheap black labor.
By oppressing the black and colored population of South Africa, the whites could ensure cheap labor.
When all the blacks lived in poverty they were willing to do any job for very low wages because they were desperate.
Introduction - What is Apartheid?
"Migrant Labor" in South Africa not only refers to workers coming from neighboring countries, but also refers to a system of controlling the African workers already there.
Provided abundant, cheap labor, and at the same time enforced racial segregation.
Migrant workers were divided into different labor groups for most of the year.
As the industry became more reliant on migrant workers, immigration increased.
Much pressure on the government to reform labor system.
Immagrancy continues to be an issue even in modern South Africa.
By: Chandni Gazula, Kalina Lalova, Kyle Miller, Simi Pajetta, and Vijit Yadav
The Bantustans, also known as the "homelands" were segregated areas for the black South Africans during the time of apartheid.
The promotion of the Bantu Self-Government Act of 1959 created the Bantustans. It abolished the indirect representation of Blacks in Pretoria, a city in the northern part of Guateng, South Africa.
The Bantustans divided the different African ethnic groups into 10 distinct groups where they were each given a separate and traditional homeland.
The 10 different groups consisted of: Transkei, Bophuthatswana, Ciskei, Gazankulu, Kwazulu, Lebowa, Quakwa, Kwa-Ndebele, KaNgwane, and Venda.
Forced by the Land Act of 1913, the homelands only consisted of a measly 13% of the land for a huge 75% of the Black population.
This was very unfair for the Africans, considering this was originally their land and they had, by far, a much larger population than the Whites did.
Four Bantustans (Transkei, Bophuthatswana, Venda, Ciskei) eventually reached independence, while the rest were never granted total independence.
Present day South Africa is independent and the homelands are gone.
By: MATRIX, Michigan State University 1984
Control the movement
of the Africans under the
By the Dutch and the British of Cape Colony in the 18-19th century
For example: around the 19th century, the purpose of the new pass laws were to ensure a reliable supply of cheap, docile African labor for the gold and diamond mines
1952, the government required all African males over the age of 16 to carry a "reference book" (replacing the previous passbook) containing personal information and employment history.
Africans often were compelled to violate the pass laws to find work to support their families, so harassment, fines, and arrests under the pass laws were a constant threat to many urban Africans.
On August 9, 1956, 20,000 women, representing all racial backgrounds, came from all over South Africa to march on the Union Buildings, where they stood in silent protest for 30 minutes while petitions with 100,000 signatures were delivered to the Prime Minister’s office.
In the 1970s and 1980s, many Africans that violated pass laws were stripped of citizenship and deported to poverty-stricken rural "homelands." (tribal reserves)
Works Cited Cont.
The South African government would forcefully remove blacks from their homes to township in order to segregate the country.
The removal of African, Indian, and Coloured people was to implement the Groups Areas Act which by law allowed the White people to segregate the blacks throughout the country.
In the course of 23 years, the South African government forcefully removed 3.5 million blacks in one of the biggest mass removals in history.
Over four days in 1985, Africans resisted being moved from Crossroads to the new government-run Khayelitsha township; 18 people were killed and 230 were injured.
In South Africa, after taken out of their home and moving to a different place, black people were not allowed to move to different towns to get jobs. Instead they were segregated into poor and overcrowded area with with there was no job prospects.
Removals were an essential tool of the apartheid government’s Bantustan (or homeland) policy aimed at stripping all Africans of any political rights as well as their citizenship in South Africa.
Hundreds of thousands of Africans were moved to resettlement camps in the bantustans with no services or jobs.
These were dumping grounds for for women and children, the sick and elderly and anyone else deemed unnecessary to the white economy.
Hundreds of thousands of other Africans land and homes were taken away, where they had lived for generations in what the government called “Black spots” in areas that the government had designated as part of “white” South Africa. Entire townships were destroyed and residents removed to just inside the borders of bantustans.
By the 1980s, popular resistance to removals was widespread, and government plans to remove up to two million more people were never carried out.
(Slide 6) Palmer, Joy. Overcoming Apartheid. The
Center for Humane Arts, Letters, and Social Sciences, May 2005. Web. April 11, 2013. <http://overcomingapartheid.msu.edu/multimedia.php?id=4>
(Slide 9) Palmer, Joy Root, Christine. South Africa:
Overcoming Apartheid. Bantustans. MATRIX: The Center for Humane Arts, Letters, and Social Sciences, May 2006. Web. April 11, 2013.
2nd Protest against forced removals in Ndabeni in 1901 on a mountain slope.
1st Protest against forced removals in Ndabeni in 1901.
South Africans were forcibly moved to such villages, which became a dumping ground for women and children, the sick and elderly and anyone else deemed unnecessary to the white economy.
(Slide 7&8): Palmer, Joy and Root, Christine.
South Africa: Overcoming Apartheid.MATRIX:
The Center for Humane Arts, Letters, and Social Sciences, May 2006. Web. 11 April 2013. <http://overcomingapartheid.msu.edu/acknowledgements.php>
This is a map of the 10 different homelands during apartheid.
All pictures from MATRIX, Michigan State University 1984