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Transcript of Sound
Types of Waves
Transverse - matter moves up and down.
Ex. ocean wave
A compressional wave (spring) produced by vibrations in matter
Person A - Define wavelength. Which letter shows it?
Person B - Define amplitude. Which letter shows it?
Characteristics of Light
Law of Reflection
The angle between an incoming light ray and a surface is equal to the angle between the reflected light ray and the surface.
Types of Mirrors
Plane mirror - has a flat surface
Sound waves MUST travel through a medium (a substance) in order to transfer energy.
A disturbance that transfers energy from one point to another.
Compressional (longitudinal) - matter moves
back and forth.
Ex. a coil or slinky - sound wave
transverse - the distance between wave crests or troughs
compressional - the distance between compressions
measure of how many wave crests OR troughs pass a given point in a unit of time.
measured in hertz (Hz) - cycles per second
humans hear sounds between 20 - 20,000 Hz
- highness or lowness
amplitude - height of a wave from its trough or crest to the midpoint. It measures intensity (
Distance between particles affect sound waves.
Person A - What part of the wave is represented by B and F?
Person B - What part of the wave is represented by D?
Travels in waves
Doppler Effect and Sonic Boom
A sound's pitch seems to change if its source or listener is moving.
Types of matter that react with light
transparent - allows light to pass through with little or no disturbance
Objects appear clear.
Waves travel in straight lines called rays
Can travel through empty space
Fastest speed of any energy (186,000 miles per second)
translucent - some light passes through and some is blocked or bent
Objects appear blurry.
opaque - allows NO light to pass through
It absorbs all light, which converts to heat.
Creates a shadow
p. 267 text illustration
How waves bounce off of objects and change their direction of travel.
How Light Behaves in a Mirror
Surface curves inward (like a cave).
Close object will appear larger and right-side up
If object moves farther away, it becomes blurry and then is reflected upside-down
Ex. magnifying mirrors, telescopes
Surface curves outward
Object always smaller and right-side up
Light is reflected and spread out producing a wide-angle view
Ex. side car mirrors, security mirrors
Light meets at a point in front of the mirror
Concave mirror - curves inward
Convex mirror - curves outward
The bending of a wave as it moves from one medium to another.
Refraction with Lenses
Convex lens - refract light rays together.
Concave lens - spreads light rays apart
Ex. magnifying lens
Ex. shrinks image
Light moving into denser medium (gas --> liquid) bends toward "normal"
Light moving into less dense medium (liquid --> gas) bends away from "normal"
Normal - line perpendicular to water's surface
Solid Liquid Gas