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Nationalism in Africa and the Middle East

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Alex Reinecke

on 4 April 2013

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Transcript of Nationalism in Africa and the Middle East

NATIONALISM IN AFRICA AND THE MIDDLE EAST 1900's 1948 1910 During the 1900's, almost every African country was a European colony. White control strengthens Objectives:
Analyze how nationalism grew in Africa
Explain how Turkey and Persia modernized
Understand the roots of conflict between Jews and Arabs in the Palestinian mandate beginning of stronger white control Apartheid begins 1920's Pan-Africanism AFRICA Read Witness History at the top of Pg. 496 How did nationalism contribue to changes in Africa and the Middle East following World War I? What have we learned about Nationalism so far? Please take out your maps Do you believe nationalism could take hold in all of Africa under one government? Why or why not? Ex.
The United States
The United States is a country made up of many different religions and ideas. They have made a country that is unified under a single idea - FREEDOM In the early 1900's every part of Africa was a European colony. Some African's were forced to work on plantations or in mines run by Europeans.
In Kenya and Rhodesia white settlers forced African settlers off of the best land. The few who kept their land were forbidden to grow the most profitable crops. (maps) Many western-educated Africans criticized the injustice of imperial rule. Although they had trained for professional careers, the best jobs went to Europeans. Because of this and inspired by Woodrow Wilson's call for self-determination, Africans condemned the colonial system.
Socialism found a growing audience. Protests and opposition to imperialism multiplied. The whites became more powerful between 1910 and 1940 in Africa.
The whites forced the African blacks into crowded "reserves" which were located in dry, infertile areas. (maps) All of these instances led to the era of Apartheid in South Africa.
Apartheid - a law that makes a system of rigid segregation legal. To combat apartheid, the African National Congress was created. Their efforts had little effect on South Africa's white government. The movement known as Pan-Africanism began to nourish the nationalist spirit and strengthen resistance.

Pan-Africanism - Emphasized the unity of Africans and people of African descent worldwide. W.E.B. DuBois organized the first Pan-African Congress in 1919. It was held in Paris at the same time the allies were holding their peace conference.

The western powers basically ignored their demands, but the Pan-African Congress established cooperation among African and African leaders. 1919 Pan-African Congress 1922 Middle East Egyptian Independence 1918 Ottoman Empire Collapses 1923 Ataturk's Reforms 1938 1925 Reza Khan Overthrows the Shah 1917 Balfour Declaration 1919 1940 Jewish Immigration Egypt errupted in riots after WWI and Britain was forced to grant Egyptian independence in 1922 (maps) AFRICA Middle East Britain still controlled Egypt's monarchy. During the 1930's the young Egyptians joined an organization called the Muslim Brotherhood to try to gain full independence. The group rejected corruption in the Egytian Government and Western culture. Nationalist movements brought immense changes to the Middle East after WWI. In asia minor, the Turks resisted western control and fought to build a modern nation.

Asian Minor - The Turkish Peninsula between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. (Maps) Kemal negotiated a new treaty that called for about 1.3 million Greeks to leave Turkey while some 400,000 Turks left Greece. Kemal later took the name Ataturk meaning "father of the Turks." Between 1923 and his death in 1938 Ataturk modernized Turkey.

Ataturk got rid of several islamic traditions in favor of more Western alternatives. What were some of the reforms Ataturk put in place? Reza Kahn in Iran tried to modernize just like Ataturk did in Turkey. In response to foreigners trying to exploit its large oil reserves, the era of Pan-Arabism began. This movement was built on the heritage of Arabs who lived in lands from the Arabian peninsula to North Africa such as Syria, Jordan, Iraq, Egypt, Algeria and Morocco. During World War I the Allies had promised that if the Arabs helped them, the allies would gain independence after the war. Instead, the Allies carved up the Ottoman lands and gave them to various European powers. A region that was really dangerous during this period was Palestine (Israel). Arab nationalists and Jewish nationalist frequently clashed. The cause of this were the mandates set by the western powers at the Paris Peace Conference. (Maps) The Balfour Declaration only intensified those clashes.

Balfour Declaration - Stated that the national home of the Jewish people would come from the lands of Palestine. From 1919 to 1940 tens of thousands of Jews immigrated to Palestine due to the Zionist movement and the effects of anti-Semetism in Europe. Why did Israel and Palestine clash during this time period? 2:23 to 4:27 Why would the Turkish peninsula be important to Britain? http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history Remember this map? In 1920, the Ottoman sultan reluctantly signed the Treaty of Sevres, in which the empire lost its Arab and North African lands. The Sultan also gave up some land in Asia Minor to a number of Allied countries, including Greece. A greek force landed in the city of Smyrna to take Greece's land from the Sultan. Turkish nationalists led by Mustafa Kemal overthrew the sultan, defeated the Greeks and declared Turkey a repbublic. How did Nationalism grow in Africa? Review: How did Turkey and Persia modernize? Why were Palestine and the Jews constantly fighting with each other? PHOTO ANALYSIS What do you see in the picture? 5 things.
What is the significance of the sign in the picture?
What race are the people walking towards the sign?
How do you think they feel as the read that sign?
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