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The sacraments chapter 4 reconciliation
Transcript of The sacraments chapter 4 reconciliation
The Origin and Early Forms of Penance
Personal Responsibility for Sin
What is the
Complete the following table to organize your knowledge of the Sacrament of Penance as celebrated in the early Church.
In Isaiah 22:22, Eliakim is made steward of Judah and Jerusalem and given the “key of the house of David: he shall open, and none shall shut; and he shall shut, and none shall open.”
An indulgence is the remission of the temporal punishment due to sin that has already been forgiven.
What is an indulgence?
another form of penance in which we exercise charity by giving of our time, talent, and treasure for the benefit of others.
The main season of penance the Church has established are the forty days of Lent.
Regulations for fasting are binding on All who are fourteen and older must abstain from meat on Ash Wednesday and every Friday of Lent. All who are eighteen or older must fast on Ash Wednesday and Good Friday, in addition to abstaining from meat on Ash Wednesday and every Friday during Lent, as well as making some act of self-denial on all other Fridays of the year.
Eternal life with God.
The consequence of dying in a state of grace is
A means of forming one’s soul, often done in Confession. A spiritual director helps a person to make progress in his or her spiritual life.
Spiritual direction is
Christ granted his Apostles the authority to forgive sins in his name, and the bishop or priest is the means through which Christ forgives the penitent.
A bishop or priest can forgive sins because
The minister of Reconciliation and the seal of Confession
When the priest pronounces the words of absolution, he is speaking in the Person of Christ. This is why the priest says, “I absolve you …”
in the Latin Rite.
God the Father has reconciled the world to himself. He has done this through the Passion of his Son. He has sent the Holy Spirit among us for the forgiveness of sin. The Church is the minister of this Sacrament.
How do the words of absolution involve the Trinity and the Church?
Identifying the root of a sin helps us to overcome it.
It is a balance between not being vague to hide what you did and offering unnecessary details.
To what degree of specificity must you confess your sins?
Scrupulosity is the error of judging something evil when it is not.
It is sorrow for sin out of fear of punishment.
What is imperfect contrition?
It is sorrow for sin out of love for God.
What is perfect contrition?
Reflect on our sins and their true consequences, including how Christ has suffered for them.
What can we do if we have a hard time seeing what is wrong about a particular sin?
There can be NO forgiveness of sin without sorrow.
A good template to use in examining one’s conscience are the Ten Commandments and the
Precepts of the Church.
The steps to make a good Confession.
If a person was assigned to fast for one year, for example, this period of time could be shortened by making a pilgrimage to a Christian shrine.
Penance is necessary because we must be perfected before we enter into the presence of God in Heaven. A soul with the stain of sin or owing satisfaction for sins already forgiven must be purified in Purgatory before entering Heaven.
Irish missionaries evangelized Northern Europe and brought this form of Reconciliation with them so it became the norm in the Western Church.
The penance was determined by the gravity of the sin and the circumstances of the person who committed it. For example, if a priest and a peasant committed the same sin, the priest would receive a harsher penance.
A grave sinner would publicly confess his or her sins before the bishop, the bishop would impose a penance, and, once the penance was completed, the bishop would publicly pronounce absolution. Then the sinner would be welcomed back into the community.
The Rite of the Sacrament of Reconciliation evolved during the first centuries of the Church.
The bishop has the primary authority to forgive sins. Priests cooperate with him in this ministry.
No. Christ intended the Apostles to pass it on to their successors.
Was the power to forgive sins limited to the Apostles alone?
Just as Christ used physical healing to demonstrate he had the divine power to forgive sins, he also gave the power to heal to St. Peter and the Apostles.
What evidence was there that St. Peter and the Apostles had the authority to actually forgive sins?
Christ extended this power to all the Apostles the evening after his Resurrection when he said, “Receive the Holy Spirit. If you forgive the sins of any, they are forgiven: if you retain the sins of any, they are retained.”
What is the second indication in the Scriptures of the authority to forgive?
Eliakim’s keys were for the earthly city of Jerusalem while St. Peter’s are for the New Jerusalem—the Church.
What is the difference between the keys given to Eliakim and those given to St. Peter?
In Matthew 16:19, Christ says to St. Peter, “I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven, and whatever you bind on earth shall be bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven.”
How are Christ’s words similar to God’s word to Eliakim?
We first see Jesus imparting his divine authority to forgive sins when Christ gives St. Peter the keys to the Kingdom of Heaven with the power to bind and loose.
The Irish monks introduced the common form of the Sacrament of Reconciliation that we celebrate today with private confession and absolution followed by private penance; this rite could be repeated as often as needed.
voluntary self-denial that helps us to die to ourselves and live for Christ.
The Church established days and seasons of penance because we need penance to grow in our Christian life.
Penance can be done through prayer by prayerful reading of the Sacred Scriptures, called lectio divina, the Liturgy of the Hours, the Rosary, visits to the Blessed Sacrament, and meditating on the lives and writing of the saints are recommended forms of prayer.
The Church encourages frequent Confession of venial sins for the benefits that it bestows on our spiritual lives.
Doing so would be another mortal sin, that of sacrilege.
It wrong to receive Communion while in a state of mortal sin because
It encourages people to confess their sins without fear.
The Church created the seal of Confession because
The “seal of Confession” prohibits the confessor from revealing anything told him in Confession under pain of excommunication.
Penance–voluntary self-denial through mortification, prayer, and almsgiving–is necessary for growth in the Christian life.
The minister of the Sacrament of Reconciliation is a bishop or priest who is bound by the “seal of Confession” never to reveal what he has heard in Confession.
Imperfect contrition is expressed in the words, “because I dread the loss of heaven and the pains of hell.” Perfect contrition is shown in the words, “most of all, because they offend you my God, who are all good and deserving of all my love.”
The Act of Contrition on page 120 includes both perfect and imperfect contrition.
The priest can make a true assessment of your sins. For example, stealing one dollar from your mother’s purse on one occasion is different from stealing twenty dollars from your employer on ten occasions.
You confess mortal sins in kind and number because
We should mention how long it has been since our last Confession because it helps the priest understand our situation better.
Both kinds of contrition are valid, although perfect contrition is better in the same way that love is superior to fear.
Sorrow or contrition is not primarily a feeling. Sorrow and contrition are primarily a judgment of the will that one has done wrong.
is a review of your moral conduct since your last Confession.
An examination of conscience
Mortal sons must be confessed in kind, number, and sufficient detail.
The steps of a good Confession
Making a Good Confession
The proper motivation for undertaking penances is our desire to repair our relationship with God and our neighbor, which we have damaged through sin.
We remove the “inordinate attachment to created things that distort the image of Christ in our souls” through acts of penance on earth or in Purgatory after death.
The Irish monks developed a form of Reconciliation that was private and repeatable. The penitent’s sins were confessed in private with the absolution given at the same time. The penance was done later.
Sts. Matthew, Paul, and James urged members of the Church to confess their sins to one another and to avoid contact with those members of the Church who were guilty of serious sins.
Through Apostolic Succession, that is, through the Sacrament of Holy Orders.
How did the Apostles pass on their powers?
Both confession of mortal sins and frequent confession of venial sins give the penitent many graces and benefits, including the forgiveness of sin and a closer identification with Christ.
The Church requires and recommends Confession because
Perfect and imperfect contrition are both valid forms of expressing sorrow for sins.
There are two types of contrition:
Source of Our Life in Christ
Keys to This Chapter
God is our loving Father, rich in mercy.
In This Chapter We Will Discuss:
When did Christ give the Apostles the authority to forgive sins?
What are the benefits of frequent Confession?
How does one prepare for a good Confession?
Why is Confession necessary in the Christian life?
How does the Church mediate God’s forgiveness in the Sacrament of Reconciliation?
In the Parable of the Prodigal Son, Christ reveals that the one true God is a Father who offers love and forgiveness to his children.
Forgiveness of sins before and after Baptism comes through Jesus Christ who, being God, can forgive sins.
The effects of Original Sin remain even after Baptism, resulting in the need for an ongoing, lifelong “second conversion.”
Jesus Christ, through the ministry of his Church, forgives those sins committed after Baptism.
Christ instituted the Sacrament of Reconciliation, considering that Baptism forgives our sins because Christ knew even his most sincere followers would sin after Baptism. Therefore, he instituted the Sacrament and gave his Apostles the authority to forgive sins.
God like the father
in the parable?
God gives us everything, and, even when we squander our inheritance, he always welcomes us back with open arms and calls our brothers and sisters to celebrate our return.
The key aspect of the nature of God that Jesus reveals in the Parable of the Prodigal Son is that the one true God is a Father who offers love and forgiveness to his children.
Jesus scandalized the scribes and Pharisees by associating himself with the sinners and then claimed to forgive them.
Read (1) the second paragraph under “The First Sin,” beginning, “As a result…” and (2) no. 405 from the Catechism of the Catholic Church, and then list in bullet-point form the effects of Original Sin.
Baptism cleanses the soul of Original Sin (i.e., restores sanctifying grace to the soul), as well as all personal sins, and turns us back towards God.
By eating of the Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil, Adam and Eve questioned the justice of God and chose to be their own arbiters of right and wrong. They placed their own wills before that of God.
They correctly understood that only God can forgive sins.
Isaiah foretells and an angel later confirms to St. Joseph that the Messiah will save his people from their sins.
Therefore, if he was not God, then he must be a blasphemer.
If Jesus claimed to forgive sins, he was claiming to be God.
The earliest form of the Sacrament of Reconciliation was public confession, followed by public penance, followed by public absolution, and was usually received only once in a lifetime and only for particularly grave sins.
Christ instituted the Sacrament of Reconciliation when he gave St. Peter and the Apostles his power to forgive sins, which they passed on to the bishops they ordained.
The institution of the Sacrament of Reconciliation
We should imitate Christ by taking up our cross daily through penance.
Reconciliation is valuable even in case of venial sin.
How to make a good Confession.
We are responsible for our evil actions.
Christ instituted the Sacrament of Reconciliation for the forgiveness of sins committed after Baptism.
Because the process was public and severe, it discouraged repeat offenses.
The public celebration of the Sacrament of Penance expressed the communal nature of the Church's sacraments.
The Sacrament was usually only celebrated once. If the penitent repeated the sin, he would be excommunicated for life.
Many people put off Baptism until death was imminent rather than risk committing serious sin after it. This was equivalent to gambling with their salvation.
Many avoided Baptism to avoid the embarrassment of confessing their sins.
If a person died after receiving a plenary indulgence (i.e., free of all attachment to sin), he or she would go to Heaven with no need of further purgation or purification in Purgatory.
The result of a person receiving a plenary indulgence is:
One of the conditions of receiving a plenary indulgence is the complete detachment from all sin. It is rare for a person to be completely detached from all deliberate sin.
Most indulgences are partial because:
The two kinds of indulgences are:
Requirements for mortal sin
Participation in the holy Sacrifice of the Mass
Ways in which venial sins can be forgiven outside of Sacramental Confession:
is willful separation from God and his sanctifying grace. If one dies in a state of mortal sin, it will result in eternal separation from God.
The effect of mortal sin:
God ultimately decides if a sin is mortal or venial.
The act must involve serious matter,
The three conditions for committing a mortal sin are
Mortal sin is an immoral action that destroys our relationship with God.
Venial sins are immoral actions that damage, but do not destroy our relationship with God.
He said Israel is like a wife who commits adultery against her husband.
How does the prophet Hosea portray the sin of the nation of Israel?
God is supposed to be first in our lives. Every sin is a disordered love of creatures over God.
Sin is a form of idolatry condemned by the First Commandment because
The ultimate expression of the natural law can be found in Divine Revelation in the Ten Commandments and in the teachings of Jesus Christ.
It is the eternal law as applied to human conduct.
What is natural law?
We are perfected by freely conforming our actions to the eternal law, and we are degraded by freely rejecting that law.
damages our relationship with God,
Sin damages the sinner because it
Through the Sacrament of Reconciliation.
Mortal sins are forgiven
Hell is the name for the freely-chosen eternal separation from God
Assume it is a mortal sin and confess it.
What should we assume, if we are not sure if a sin is mortal or venial?
If the first condition is not present, it is a venial sin.
Unlike Original Sin, which is a wound we inherit, actual sin is a freely committed immoral action.
Christ became man and suffered for the actual—not theoretical—sins of man.
Sin becomes a personal offense against God in the New Testament because
They hid themselves from him.
Adam and Eve’s behavior revealed that they had damaged their relationship with God when
The two sources of the natural law are:
It is the law of God that directs all creation according to divine wisdom.
What is eternal law?
Every sin hurts others, either directly, as in stealing from others, or indirectly, by giving our neighbor bad example.
Sin harm others because
We can freely respond to God’s love by loving him in return, sharing in his act of creation, and having a personal relationship with him. Alternatively, we can deliberately make a choice in opposition to God’s moral law and his wisdom.
Sins can be:
Every sin violates the eternal and natural laws and is a form of idolatry.
What is sin?
Because we have reason and free will, we are personally responsible for good and bad actions and the effects they have on ourselves and others.
We are morally responsible for our actions
Our moral responsibility
Our sins personally damage our relationship with God.
Mortal and venial sin
Sin and our relationship with God
Extension: Natural law is usually defined as man’s participation in the eternal law.
It is disordered because we want the supposed good, which we think that a created thing will give us, more than we want the ultimate good, which is God.
and clouds our intellect.
weakens our will,
Our actual, personal sins are the cause of his actual, personal suffering and Crucifixion.
and one must have complete consent, i.e., freely commit the act or allow it to happen.
one must have full knowledge,
i.e., know it is seriously wrong
the absence of God's love
There are two classifications of actual sin:
A sin is any act, word, or desire that violates the eternal law of God.
Again, What is a sin?
It includes acts (thoughts, words, actions, and omissions) and intentions.
Also, a person can seek spiritual direction or counsel from a priest over these concerns.
You should confess your sins with sufficient detail to allow the priest to assess the gravity of your sins and to offer advice on how you can avoid these sins in the future.
Making a Good Confession
The Church defines the minimum fast on fast days as one full meal and two half meals along with abstaining from meat.
• This weakened condition persists after Baptism.
• Human nature is wounded in the natural powers proper to it, subject to ignorance, suffering and the dominion of death, and inclined to sin (this is called concupiscence).
• Human nature is wounded but not totally corrupted.
• It is a deprivation of original holiness and justice.
• Original Sin is not a personal fault of any of Adam’s descendants.
• Every individual is conceived in a state of Original Sin, inheriting a fallen condition.
We must understand what drove us to commit our sins and then make a deliberate decision to not commit them again. This includes a resolution to change our habits and behaviors that lead us into sin, thus avoiding occasions of sin.
However, we still experience the consequences of Original Sin in a fallen human nature that is weakened and inclined to evil (concupiscence).
The Prodigal Son and the Forgiveness of Sins
The younger son’s share of the inheritance was one third of the Father’s property. The older son got a double portion, or two thirds. When the father says to the older brother, “Everything I have is yours,” this is what he is referring to.
The Jews considered pigs unclean animals, so getting a job feeding pigs was degrading, and not even getting food as good as the pigs was especially demeaning.
The right the father gave him was probably a signet ring, which allowed him to do business in his father’s name.
The younger son could represent the entire Gentile world and the older son could represent the Jews. Or the younger son could represent the public sinners within Judaism and the older son faithful Jews like the Pharisees. Or the younger and older sons could represent two types of Christians.
Discuss the Parable of the Prodigal Son.
Examination of Conscience
2. Any person who is in authority may not in any way, for the purpose of external governance, use knowledge about sins, which has at any time come to him from the hearing of confession.
1. The confessor is wholly forbidden to use knowledge acquired in confession to the detriment of the penitent, even when all danger of disclosure is excluded.
2. An interpreter, if there is one, is also obliged to observe this secret, as are all others who in any way whatever have come to a knowledge of sins from a confession.
1. The sacramental seal is inviolable. Accordingly, it is absolutely wrong for a confessor in any way to betray the penitent, for any reason whatsoever, whether by word or in any other fashion.
Code of Canon Law on the Seal of Confession
The scribes and Pharisees consider Jesus’ claim of forgiveness of sins to be blasphemous because:
Jesuits on Reconciliation Video
In the first centuries of the Church, when the Sacrament of Reconciliation was celebrated publicly, an indulgence be applied to shorten one’s penance.
“The most important distinction, however, is that between plenary indulgences and partial.
Here, evidently, the reckoning makes no claim to absolute exactness; it has only a relative value.”
To say that an indulgence of so many days or years is granted means that it cancels an amount of purgatorial punishment equivalent to that which would have been remitted, in the sight of God, by the performance of so many days or years of the ancient canonical penance.
A partial indulgence commutes only a certain portion of the penalty; and this portion is determined in accordance with the penitential discipline of the early Church.
By a plenary indulgence is meant the remission of the entire temporal punishment due to sin so that no further expiation is required in Purgatory.
Sin is before all else an offense against God, a rupture of communion with him. At the same time it damages communion with the Church.
For this reason conversion entails both God's forgiveness and reconciliation with the Church, which are expressed and accomplished liturgically by the sacrament of Penance and Reconciliation. CCC 1440
Mortal sins must be confessed.
or Mortal, depriving us of sanctifying grace and destroying our relationship with God.
Venial, damaging but not destroying our relationship with God,
Even our “secret” sins hurt others because they change us for the worse and, therefore, negatively affect our relationship with others.
Only God forgives sins.
Acts of contrition,
Works of charity,
Reception of Holy Communion, and
All of these forgive venial sins.
• Christ can forgive sins
• The “second conversion”
• The Parable of the Prodigal Son
Penance or Satisfaction
Act of Contrition
Frequent Confession of Sins
Purpose of Amendment and the Resolution to Avoid Sins in the future
Sorrow for Sins