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-Derived from the Latin word civitas/civilis which means city. In literal,
Al-umron - settle city
Saqafah - definition more to culture but can also be civilization
al-hadir means the urban as an opposite of the word al-badwi which means the rural or the primitive
Literally, civilization is defined by some scholars as ‘city based culture’ or ‘culture of the city’ Ibn Khaldun, a Muslim historian :- Al-tamaddun and al-umran are some terms used to define civilization
used the term umran to connote civilization.
defined civilization as a sophistication in luxury and the mastery of crafts used to advance it in various aspects such as cooking, clothes, decoration, architecture and all social situations.
by civilization, he meant ‘social organization’.
When a social organization comes into existence, a civilization results. REFERENCES CONCLUSION SPIRITUAL
POWER INTELLECTUAL FREEDOM FACTORS CONTRIBUTED TO THE RISE OF ISLAMIC CIVILIZATION THE SPIRIT OF
SEEKING KNOWLEDGE The Factors Contribution to the Rise of Islamic Civilization NOORFAIZA BT SUPARMIN 1122974 NADIAH BT AZMI 1122270 NAZIRA BT MUHAMAD FAUZI 1111858 The spirit of seeking knowledge Spiritual
power Ability to transform the ideals of Qur’an to daily conduct Intellectual
freedom Openness The Prophet Muhammad is reported to have said, "Seek knowledge, even in China." Muslims inferred from this that the search for knowledge should have no boundaries. INTELLECTUAL FREEDOM Muslim scholars translated texts from Greek and Latin and made them available to scholars in Western Europe. They developed concepts in algebra, geometry, chemistry and the social sciences. During Europe's Dark Ages, the Muslim world attracted the best and brightest minds, as Islam encourages educational advancement. This led to inventions and discoveries that improved standards of living, economic growth and security. The message of equality in Islam provided an unusual social mobility in some Muslim lands. Iltutmish arrived in Delhi a slave in the thirteenth century and became a sultan. 'Izz al Din Aybak was a Mamluk slave in Egypt at this time, and ruled Egypt for seven years. While not every slave would become a sultan, Islam encouraged fair treatment of minorities.
Islam formed the basis of policies that would limit mistreatment of minorities in Muslim countries. While not uniformly positive, Muslim lands often welcomed Jews and Christians, and they held positions of authority in Muslim countries for centuries. Islam sets the right relationship and equality between the ruler and the ruled, in that all human are equal. Islam liberates human from being slaves to the inner self and eliminates idolatry, the worship of idols and statues.
Islam is international in its outlook and approach and does not admit barriers and distinctions based on color, clan, blood or territory .
Islam wants to unite the entire human race under one banner. To a world torn by national rivalries and feuds, it present a message of life and hope and of a glorious future. Openness in this context simply means flexibility or being open-minded to others. OPENNESS Openness of the Muslims can be seen from :
a) learn from human experience : enable people to voice out their opinions and share past experience in various matter such as war, administration, agriculture and economics. c) righteousness and humanness
- it was not because of military power which enabled early Muslims to dominate half of the world.
- Islam is the religion of truth and peace thus it never force anyone to embrace Islam.
- People from places dominated by Islam are treated equally and been given freedom of religion.
- In fact, some of them feel curious about Islam thus embrace it because they are attracted by its concept of unity and brotherhood. b) people from different races and ethnicities
- As a result of conquest, the minorities were not mistreated even though they are not Muslims.
- In fact, they are protected and permitted to join Muslims in all areas of economic daily activities.
- ex: official post were open to the minorities from the time of Caliph Muawiyah and his son Yazid. d) marriage
- mix marriage also happened when traders outside Arab came to run their business and trading activities.
- they married with the locals and become part of them.
- they brought their culture and lifestyle and shared among them. “Read! In the name of your Rabb (Cherisher and Sustainer) Who created— created man, out of a leech-like clot: Read! And your Rabb is Most Bountiful Who has taught (the use of) pen. He has taught man that which he knew not.” (Al-Alaq:1-5) Islam has been emphasizing the importance of knowledge since it very first time when it obliged Muslims to learn and seek knowledge.
Muslims have indeed surpassed other nations in developing knowledge and introducing sciences and art during 7th until 16th century which inspired the Renaissance of Europe.
Various branches of knowledge have developed as part of overall civilizational progress. According to Ibn Khaldun,
development of ‘traditional sciences’ including Islamic theology and law as well as ‘auxiliary sciences of Arabic language’ such as philology and lexicography.
Emergence of rational or philosophical sciences including logic, metaphysics, physics, geometry, algebra, arithmetic, astronomy, optics, etc.
It may seem surprising to us that the learned Arab historian classifies Most of the rulers of Bani Ummayah and the first two centuries of al-‘abbasid dynasties were educated and many scholars came from these two great dynasties.
- ex: Khalid son of Yazid who expert in sciences (Bani Umayyah) and Abdullah Ibn Al-Muqaffaf who translates Aristotle’s Logic from Persian ( Abbasid era)
Learning and scientific enquiry were highly encouraged and the rulers played important role in developing educational institutions.
- rulers spend generously on education where hundreds of schools and universities were established such as al-Nizamiyyah, al-Azhar, and al-Qayrawan. - ex : Dar al-Hikmah (House of Wisdom) during the time of Abbasid Caliph Haroun al-Rashid.
- rulers did not interfere in educational matters and affairs of the scholars.
Development of waqf (endowment fund)
- waqf : religious endowment, voluntary dedication of one’s wealth or a portion of it to be distributed for religious projects such as build mosque, graveyard, and schools.
Many capital city of Islamic civilization were born such as Baghdad, Cairo, Mahdiyah (Tunisia), Cordova (Spain) and Damascus (Umayyah dynasty). -Muhammad Abdul Jabbar Beg.(1985) Perspectives of Civilization, Kuala Lumpur : National University of Malaysia.
-Dr. Shawqi Dayf.(1998) The Universality of Islam, Morocco: Publications of the Islamic Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization -It is not only because of the factors discussed earlier that contribute to the rise of Islamic civilization but because of the Islam itself that cultivates the Muslims to spread across the world.
-Many capital city of Islamic civilization were born such as Baghdad, Cairo, Mahdiyah (Tunisia), Cordova (Spain) and Damascus (Umayyah dynasty). -Muslim community’s great
desire to explore (purposes) life
and the world around them
Intellectual power- enables man to know and understand the reality of things which he views and the power of action
Quran 44: 38-39 And We did not create the heavens and earth and that between them in play.(38)
We did not create them except in truth, but most of them do not know.(39) -Tauhid: Faith (essential of belief), basis of revelation
-Believe in “There is no deity worthy to be worshipped, Obeyed or followed in truth but Allah” ABILITY TO TRANSFORM
THE IDEALS OF QURAN
TO DAILY CONDUCT -Diligence, perseverance, sincerity, honesty, patience
-Spread the word of Allah (Al-Quran & Sunnah)Provide a code of conduct for the new community
-Book for the guidance of the righteousThe teachings of Holy Quran includes doctrines/views to be believed and actions to be performed
-Story of a Persian Satrap when a Muslim ambassador visited him.
-He said, “who are you to attack my empire; you, of all the peoples, the poorest, the most disunited, most ignorant, most brutal,”
-The Muslim messenger was intimidated and then answered him by saying that they have changed and now obey the Quran’s teaching. Stress on the unity, omnipotence, omniscience and other attributes of ALLAH
Also, the equality and brotherhood of believers
In Hadith, some rules relating to ethics, rites, economic, and agricultural system
Even law has been deduced from Hadith “Allah has sent us to free humans from worshipping other humans ,and to commit them to worshipping Allah”
Islam has clearly and categorically forbidden the primitive practice of capturing a free man, to make him a slave or to sell him into slavery. On this point the clear and unequivocal words of the Prophet (saw) as follow:
“There are three categories of people against whom I shall myself be the plaintiff on the Day of Judgment. Of these three, one is he who enslaves a free man, then sells him and eats this money.” (Bukhari and Ibn Majah)
Prophet (saw) liberated 63 slaves, ‘Aisha-67, Abbas- 70, Abdullah ibn Umar-1000 POLITICAL
FREEDOM Freedom of intellectual pursuits continued to be celebrated by many Sultans.
Great centers of learning had sprung up in Damascus followed by Baghdad, Cordova and Cairo. By the time these centers declined the central Asian and Indian states took up the slack.
The regime changes occasionally brought intolerant rulers prone to suppression of freedom of thought, especially when it restricted or challenged the unbridled authority of the ruler in the field o Islamic Law
But it was not a death of intellectual freedom, just an inconvenience.
Scholars found ready invitations to newer more welcoming centers of enlightened power. There was no challenge yet from the West, which was mired in what is now called medievalism, or dark ages. Freeing human intellect from superstitions, teaching people to think critically and creatively (prohibition of imitation without sound evidence)