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Shakespeare books and readers
Transcript of Shakespeare books and readers
Ariana, Caitlin, Cody Nick Shakespeare and the Publication of his plays Quote by Pope:
“Shakespear, (whom you and ev'ry Play-house bill
Style the divine, the matchless, what you will)
For gain, not glory, wing'd his roving flight,
And grew Immortal in his own despight.” -Shakespeare only cared about the stage but it was the printed page that gave him immorality.
-Apparently Shakespeare had indifference to the printing of his plays, he didn’t care about publication
-One reason that theatre companies didn’t want their plays printed was because they thought that would decrease theatre attendance if people already knew the play…In actuality this had no effect on play attendance. -The companies withheld scripts from publication to keep the play a surprise
-Some of what the public was reading was false…due to dishonest players surreptitiously reconstructing the text from memory and selling it to the publishers
-In other words the actors from Shakespeare would write the script from memory and sell it to create a quick dollar
-The publication was thought to reduce the value of the play
-No proof of this the plays still seemed to be exceptionally popular on stage
-Those who read the plays stull had an interest in the plays performances. BIBLIOGRAPHY Erne, Lukas. Shakespeare and the Publication of his plays. Copyright 2002 the Folger Shakespeare library. All rights reserved. Libraries
Who owned them etc. - One of the challenges of this exercise lies in establishing criteria for inclusion, as regards size of collection. Is a private library of this period interesting if it contains 50 books, 100 books, or 500 books?
- There is no simple answer to this; it depends on who the owner was, what the books were, and which part of the century it applies to. - Evidence of book ownership in this period is manifested in a variety of ways, which need to be brought together if we are to develop that fuller picture.
-Lists of books once owned by particular people can be found in:
- Sale catalogues
- Private catalogues
- And other various kinds of inventory. - Many collections for which no such lists exist are witnessed to today by surviving books, with inscriptions, bookplates, armorial bindings, and numerous other kinds of copy-specific markings. - Some collections survive entire, where they were bequeathed or bought en bloc, while others were scattered and are much harder to reconstruct George Abbot 1562-1633 - Archbishop of Canterbury
- Bulk of library bequeathed to Lambeth Palace (>2660 vols)
- Gave books, or money to buy books, to several other institutions.
-Bequeathed 11 books to Canterbury Cathedral; another 34 books there, with his armorial stamp, were given as Lambeth Palace duplicates by Archbishop Sancroft. Anthony Abdy -1640 - Alderman and sheriff of London.
- Probate inventory includes books
-“in the little parlour” in his house at Lime Street, valued at £12;
- He also had a house at Leytonstone, Essex, with a small number of books including Pliny and “ye Turkish historie”, valued at 12s.
- Guildhall Library ms 3760. Sir Robert Abdy 1615-1670 - Of Albyns, Essex.
- Used an armorial book stamp.
- Some or all of his books descended through the family until the collection was sold in 1775 after the death of Stotherd Abdy (1773). Nicholas Acton 1614-1664 - Of Bockleton, Worcestershire.
- Probate inventory lists in the study:
- “Two desks, bookes
- A cupboard of drawers
- A truncke
- And other small trifles” valued at £20.
- M. Wanklyn (ed), Inventories of Worcestershire landed gentry, 1637-1786, 1998, 196. Patrick Adair-ca.1706? - Physician who specialised in treating seamen.
- Library sold by retail sale in London, 12.6.1706.
- Alston Inventory. - Pearson, David. "English Book Owners in the Seventeenth Century: A Work in Progress Listing." English Book Owners in the Seventeenth Century: A Work in Progress Listing. The Bibliographical Society of America, n.d. Web. 29 Oct. 2012. <www.bibsocamer.org/bibsite/pearson/pe - Dury., John. "History of Libraries." eduScapes: A Site for Life-long Learners. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Oct. 2012. <http://eduscapes.com/history/modern/16 Gross, John. The Oxford book of essays. Oxford England: Oxford University Press, 1991. Print. This text is a compilation of essays. The beginning portion of the book looks at essays written in the same timeframe as Shakespeare. It gives the reader an insight into other forms to writing that was taking place during the Elizabethan era. An example is the work of Sir Francis Bacon. Reeves, James. Great English essays. Selected and ed. by James Reeves. London: Cassell, 1961. Print. James Reeves selected these essays an illustration of the important essays of England. It takes into account a number of essays that were written in the same time frame as Shakespeare’s writing’s, thus giving the reader a broader context of understanding. "The Norton Anthology of English Literature: The 16th Century: Review: Summary." Home | W. W. Norton & Company . N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Jan. 2012. <http://www.wwnorton.com/college/english/nael/16century/review/summary.htm>. The online website for The Norton Anthology is an excellent resource to find information on Shakespeare. This resource works well because it is easy to find links and information pertaining to a specific topic of choice. For our particular purposes the 16th century English worked well to determine readership and information regarding both Shakespeare and the works of English at the time. Flores, Stephan. "Home Page for Stephan Flores." University of Idaho. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Jan. 2012. <http://www.webpages.uidaho.edu/~sflores/>. Stephan Flores teaches Shakespeare at the University of Idaho, United States of America. This website offers basic insight into Shakespeare, but is an excellent starting ground for students and teachers alike. Gager, Valerie L. Shakespeare and Dickens: the dynamics of influence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996. Print. As the title displays this book looks into some of the influence that Shakespeare was able to portray into the general public and wider English speaking community. Reference to his choice of words and creation of words is described. Problem with this reference is that it contains an intertwining of information that is not specific to Shakespeare. Greenblatt, Stephen. Will in the world: how Shakespeare became Shakespeare. New York: W.W. Norton, 2004. Print. This book is an easy read that introduces the reader to Shakespeare and his literature. It is a bibliographical review of Shakespeare that includes much of the historical facts of the time. Thus it works well describing the events and experiences of the Elizabethan era people and Shakespeare. Hunter, Robert E. Shakespeare and Stratford-upon-Avon, a "chronicle of the time": comprising the salient facts and traditions, biographical, topographical, and historical, connected with the poet and his birth-place; together with a full record of the Tercentenary celebration. London: Whittaker and co, Harvard University, 1864. Print. This text brings a compilation of facts throughout Shakespeare’s era. The chronicle of time as it is called illustrates how the people and culture of the time affected Shakespeare’s life. This could thus be correlated directly to how the culture and society interacted with each other. Writers of ca. 1600
Other literary writers of the era included the works of Christopher Marlowe, Edmund Spenser, and Sir Francis Bacon. Marlowe and Spenser were both advocates for new literary design. Bacon wrote new philosophical works and scientific reasoning. These are just a few examples of some of the writers that were also in action during the time. Exploration and travel was admired by society in large. Gilbert, Drake, Cavendish, Frobisher, and Hawkins were all explorers who had their written accounts for their fellow countrymen. These far-reaching voyages were another aspect of what was taking place outside of Europe and England, and how it was being brought to society at large. Modern Libraries: 1600s-1640s CE
- The 17th century marked the spread of free, public libraries and the continuing developing of other types of libraries including university, church, monastery, academic and castle libraries.
- However many of these libraries restricted access to approved citizens and most of the libraries were non-circulating.
- These libraries often began with endowments from local leaders or scholars.
- Receiving little or no outside funding, and relied heavily on donations.
-Theft was a constant concern for many of the libraries, so they chained their books Old Meets New - William Shakespeare (ca 1564-1616) used his plays to invent and share new words and expressions.
- His plays were published during his lifetime.
- Interest in book collecting and libraries was spreading. In 1666, Michel de Marolle published Catalogue de livres d’estampes et de figures en taille douce focusing on print collecting. Discussing topics like guidelines for acquisitions and market conditions, it reflected growing enthusiasm for building print collections Free Library During the 1600’s the concept of free library was introduced. Although many towns in the United Kingdom built libraries, they were not well endowed Chetham's Library Manchester, England - Established in 1653, Humphrey Chetham's will stipulated that a free, public reference library should be established for scholars and others.
- Twenty-four feoffees, (a trustee who holds a fief, or “fee”, which is an estate in land, for use of the beneficial owner) were appointed to acquire a world-class collection.
- The materials were chained to book cases and stools were provided for readers.
- Feoffe -> legal seizing in one's land-holdings to a group of trusted friend or relatives or other allies whilst retaining use of the lands Plume Library Maldon, England - One of the first public libraries, the Plume Library was established by Reverend Doctor Thomas Plume to house his library of over 8,000 books
- The Plume Library is one of only two libraries local, purpose-build in England during the 17th century. The library was created as a public library and also contained grammar schools. It may be thought of the first school building created to serve as a school library.
- Plume stated that "there was to be a well-qualified librarian who was 'a scholar who knows books,' who was to at be least a Master of Arts and a clerk (as the holder of the key) in holy orders." Gabriel Naude (1600-1653) France - A French librarian, Gabriel Naude (1600-1653) believed in an open library for public use. In 1627, he wrote the book Advice on Establishing a Library providing a set of instructions for people wishing to create private collections.
- This influential work was applied to the creation of a library for Cardinal Jules Mazarin that included 40,000 volumes. It became the first library in France to be open to the public without a requirement of references. Academic Libraries Bodleian Library Oxford, England - During the Reformation, the library at Oxford was stripped. In 1598, Sir Thomas Bodley (1545-1613) took the challenge of re-founding the library. In addition to bringing the library up-to-date, he made a significant contribution to librarianship.
- Re-established in 1602, the library is the second largest in England and one of the oldest in Europe. The library was one of the first libraries open to the public in England. Policies and Procedures - Bodley develop specific policies regarding use of the library. Users were required to agree to the following terms of library use.
-"I hereby undertake not to remove from the Library, nor to mark, deface, or injure in any way, any volume, document or other object belonging to it or in its custody; not to bring into the Library, or kindle therein, any fire or flame, and not to smoke in the Library; and I promise to obey all rules of the Library." Friends of the Library Bodley saw the importance of recognizing contributions made to the library. He prepared a register of donations known as the Benefactors' Book that was displayed prominently. This idea became the foundations for friends of the library. Legal Deposit Libraries By creating an agreement between the library and the Stationer's Company, Bodley received a copy of every book on the condition that it could be borrowed and reprinted as needed. In this way, all published works could be preserved.
This model has been replicated around the world. Church and Monastery Libraries Church and monastery libraries continued to thrive in some areas. However chained libraries became less popular as collections grew larger and materials became less expensive. Francis Trigge Chained Library Granthan, Lincolnshire, England Founded in 1598, Francis Trigge developed a library over the south porch of the St. Wulfram's Church for use of the clergy and townspeople. It is sometimes referred to as the first public library in Britain. The town furnished the rooms and Trigge spent about one hundred pounds on books. However access was restricted to approved patrons. A local smith used a standard pattern to produce the chains used on the library's book. Hereford Cathedral Library
Hereford, England Originally, the working library of the cathedral, the Hereford Cathedral library was established in 1611. One of the only surviving chained libraries, it contains books date from the 12th to 19th century. Durham Cathedral Library The library (115 feet long by 40 feet wide) contains windows for light. The bookcases include some with multiple shelves mixed with standing desks. (that picture belongs to this) Castle Libraries Some wealthy families maintained personal libraries in their castles Earl of Worcester's Library Raglan Castle, Wales - The modern Raglan Castle was built between the 15th and 17th centuries. The castle contained an important collection of Welsh documents and books. - In 1646, the parliamentary army burned the library during the English Civil War.
In the photo of the Raglan Castle ruins, the library is in the center between the apartments to the left and gatehouse to the right.