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Different Instructional Approaches and Methods
Transcript of Different Instructional Approaches and Methods
No bother on the teacher to lead learners to the formulation of the generalization or rule. is less teacher-directed. It begins with specific details, concrete data and examples and ends with an abstract generalization rule, or principle. is teacher-dominated. The teacher shows how to operate, manipulate an equipment while the class observes. also called discovery or problem-solving method, where the teacher guides the students as they explore and discover. is a teaching strategy that employs the scientific method in searching for information and for improving reasoning process. is a "hands-on, minds-on" method. It requires students to present/construct projects in concrete form the result of their study/research. makes students think about their thinking. Thinking aloud is an act of metacognition. is anchored on the ability of the teacher to guide students to reflect on their own experiences in order to arrive at new understandings and meanings. is looking back at what one has learned, gaining useful insight from the analysis and applying this new knowledge to daily work. When a student reflects on why he/she succeeded or failed at some task. A journal reveals feelings about the days activities including what could have enhanced or inhibited their learning. includes a teacher's first hand observations and personal knowledge that will be needed in analyzing changes in values being developed. is a group helping and working with each other to learn and complete a task while keeping each individual member accountable for his/her learning. is learning with the help of a classmate tutor who belongs more or less to the same age group. is teaming up with a classmate as a partner for learning. "A thousand teachers, a thousand methods" Chinese Proverb It is not supportive of the principle that learning is an active process.
Lesson appears uninteresting at first. Learners are more engaged in the teaching-learning process.
Learning becomes more interesting because we begin with what they know.
It helps to develop higher-order-thinking. It requires more time and so less subject matter will be covered.
It demands expert facilitating skills on the part of the teacher Students will learn from a well-tried procedure.
The use of expensive equipments will be mazimized.
Possible wastage of time, effort and resources will be avoided.
It will not result to trial and error learning.
The findings are reliable and accurate.
The value of confidence is developed among demostrators.
Curiosity and keen observing ability are instilled. The level in which assumptions and beliefs are specified. The level at which theory is put into practice. Knowledge and understanding is conveyed easily from the teacher to the students by direct verbal and visual means. It is fast-paced and straightforward instruction, and is very systematic with a step-by-step format requiring student mastery at each step. Process-oriented and involves a step-by-step acquisition of knowledge and skills.
Engages students in learning through discovery. Encourages students to ask questions, seek answers or solutions to problems, and explore possibilities from their own ideas. Commonly used in higher-level thinking. Sensing and defining the problem Formulating Hypothesis Testing the likely hypothesis Analysis, interpretation and evaluation of evidence Formulating conclusion Steps in problem-solving It involves application of a principle or concept. Requires students not only to acquire thinking skills but to monitor and control their commitment and attitude during the learning process. Knowledge cannot be passed down from one person to another. It is constructed by the learner himself through his interpretation of a particular information. Did I motivate them enough? Are they learning from the activity? Am I relating the lesson to their knowledge and interests? How good was my classroom management skill? Did any significant occur? Was the strategy used the most effective one? What strategy might have been effective? Did I exhibit flexibility in modifying my lesson according to their responses? What have I learned about my own teaching? Am I better now? Two important components: Cooperative incentive structure Cooperative task structure two or more individuals are interdependent for a reward. two or more individuals are allowed, encouraged or required to work together to complete the task. Tutoring arrangements: Instructional tutoring
Same age tutoring
Semi-structured tutoring A "study buddy" is assigned who becomes responsible for each other's learning, though each one is still accountable for his/her own learning. Presentation by SittiJhoe Principles of Teaching