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History of Photography
Transcript of History of Photography
Photographic cameras were a development of the camera obscura, a device dating back to the ancient Chinese and ancient Greeks.
It used a pinhole or lens to project an image of the scene outside upside-down onto a viewing surface.
In 1558 Giovanni Batista della Porta was the first the to recommend that it be used as an aid to drawing.
Johann Zahn was the first to envision the modern day camera in 1685. It would be almost 150 years before such a camera could be made. The first prototype of the camera was small and portable enough to be practical for photography, but didn't fully function as a 'camera'
It was still a camera obscura but it became easier for draftsman to draw landscapes using Zahn's portable obscura.
The first partially successful photograph of a camera image was made in approximately 1816 by Nicéphore Niépce
Using a small camera that he had made and a piece of paper coated with silver chloride, which darkened where it was exposed to light, he was able to capture the image. However, the photo was not permanent and faded (image above right)
It was the first major step to modern photographs.
After Niépce's death in 1833, his associate Louis Daguerre, continued experimenting with different methods and by 1837 had created the first practical photographic process, which he named the 'Daguerreotype' and publicly unveiled in 1839.
Daguerre treated a silver-plated sheet of copper with iodine vapor to give it a coating of light-sensitive silver iodide.
In 1856, photographer and civil engineer Alphonse Poitevin perfected another technique to capture images known as the 'Collotype Process'
The collotype is made by coating a plate of glass or metal with a gelatin or another colloid, and hardening it. The plate is then soaked in glycerin, which is absorbed mostly in non-hardened areas.
This new process insured images would last longer, meaning it had solved the previous problem of images fading instantly. However, they still faded away, which meant alternatives had to be found.
When exposed to humidty, the plate expels an ink like liquid, allowing for positive prints of an image.
This new method allowed photograpghers to make more than one copy of an image if necessary, something that could not be done before
Dry Negative Plate
Dry negative plates were invented by Dr. Richard L. Maddox in 1871.
It consists of a silver-based negative on glass, with gelatain as a binder, in order to capture the image
Within eight years of it's introduction, a factory was set up, and large scale production of negative plates was underway.
With the plates being chemically formulated and made in the factory, photographers were now able to expand their business.
The film was thought to be first experimented with by Thomas A. Eddison in 1889. The design for the film and camera was first patented in 1908, but did not become commercially available until 1913.
The cine film was cheap and the cameras were smaller and portable, making them very attractive to photographers
The cine film had a very fine grain emulsion at first and the cameras had a slow speed, but this soon changed once there was a demand.
The 'Box Brownie' camera was developed by
the Eastman Kodak Company around 1900.
It was a small hand-held camera bound in
To take a snapshot, you had to hold it at waist height, aim and turn a switch. At least this is what you do once you finished reading the 44 page instruction manual.
The camera was mainly marketed to children and cost only $1, making it affordable for most children. Plus, owners could buy a six-exposure film catridge for an extra 15 cents and Kodak also promised to develop the film for owners, instead of the owner using a dark room.
The first colour photograph was taken by Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell, in 1861. It was of a tartan ribbon. He photographed the ribbon through coloured filters and then projected them together to create the first RGB processed image.
James C. Maxwell may have been the first to take a colour photograph, but the Lumière brothers were the first to perfect the process and manufacture a coloured plate (Autochrome) on a large scale.
In 1869, Louis Ducos du Hauron published the 'instructions' of achieving tri-color carbon pigment photographic prints. Although patented, du Hauron's work did not generate a commercial process.
Edwin H. Land leaves Havard to pursue his own theories in light polarization. Two years later, he patents the first synthetic polarizer.
He then established Land-Wheelright Laboratories with physics professor George Wheelright. Together, they develop the Polaroid filter.
With the develop of the Polaroid filter, the early prototypes of 3D film were now being made and polrizers were also used for sunglasses.
The digital camera was first developed essentially by NASA, to use in space. The technology was similar to the televisions of the day.
In 1981, Sony released the first still video camera, the Mavica, a magnetic video camera. It recorded analog images on floppy disks and 'played' them back on the T.V or monitor screen.
With the compatibility of storing images on a floppy disk, photographers could take as many photos as they wanted and could now store them
Cameras on Phones
Cameras were added to phones in the year 2000. There is debate however as to which phone company was the first to add camera's to their phones.
Samsung introduced the SCH-v200 in South Korea, June of that year. Whilst Sharp introduced its J-Phone in Japan, November of that year.
One major difference between the phones was how photos were moved and stored. For the SCH-v200, you would have to connect it to the computer via a cable, but with the JPhone, consumers could send their photos electronically.
Summary: In 10 Points
1. Invention of the Camera and Daguerretype
With the invention of the camera by Nicéphore Niépce & Louis Daguerre, images could now be permanently kept, instead of using camera obscura's which only temporarily displayed images.
2. Collotype Process
Allowed photographers to make more than on copy of an image if necessary. Before this process, if you took a photo of something and developed it, the photograph would be one of a kind..
3. Large scale production of plates and film
Photographers were able to expand their businesses because they no longer had to make the materials, needed to take the photos, from scratch.
4. 35mm Film
With the development of 35mm film, photographers were able to get their hands on affordable cameras and cine film, which gave them better images and portability.
5. Hand Held Cameras
With the development of cameras like the Box Brownie, it was becoming increasingly easy for anybody to become a photographer, as cameras were now mainstream and selling at affordable prices. Some cameras, including the
Box Brownie, were even marketed to children just to show anyone could operate a camera.
6. Colour Photography
This major development was indeed major, as photographers could not only capture a scene but they could now do it in colour, thanks to the individual work of James C. Maxwell, the Lumière brothers and Louis Ducos du Hauron.
7. Kodak Film Roll
The Kodak - Eastman Company patent the first roll of film in 1889, making the film not only affordable but also portable and easy to insert into cameras. This development improved the efficiency of the camera.
8. Polaroid Cameras
This camera not only used different filters to other standard cameras but it was also the first instant camera, meaning it would print out the photo as soon as it is taken and the image would be able to develop, without needing a dark room. It also inspired the early stages of 3D film.
9. Digital Cameras
Photographers could now choose to store their images on a floppy disk or project them on screens electronically without having to print them beacuse photos had became electronic codes. With the ability to store photos, people didn't have to worry about losing them image and could now choose whether they wanted to print them or not.
10. Camera Phones and Smart Phones
Today, cameras are built into every mobile phone one could get. It has become an essential of any phone to have a camera installed and because of this, phones cease to become just for calling and have multiple uses, such as being a good quality digital camera. Plus, you no longer have to store images in a separate location, as phones have the capacity to store them.
Photography in Australia
The first photograph to be taken in Australia was apparently of Bridge Street in Sydney, but has since been lost.
The earliest known surviving photograph taken in Australia is believed to be a daguerreotype portrait of Dr William Bland by George Baron Goodman.
The oldest camera shop in Australia is the Thorton Richards Camera House. It opened in 1872, in Ballarat.
During the twentieth century and up until now, photography in Australia has been relatively modernistic and contemporary. The main influences in Australian of the twentieth century came Europe and photographers like Wolfgang Sievers and Helmut Newton influenced and shaped the photography scene of Australia. Since then, the Contemporary photography industry has been thriving and become highly competitive.