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Folding, Faulting and Earthquakes

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Manjot Singh Sainbhi

on 2 April 2013

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Transcript of Folding, Faulting and Earthquakes

Folding Faulting and
Earthquakes By: Manjot, Chris and Noah Folding Folding is the bend in the rock in response to the compressional forces.
This creates ripples on the surface from which high and low points are created.
High points are called anticlines and low points are called synclines.
Fold mountains are a result of folding.
Some of the fold mountain ranges include the Himalayas, the Alps etc. Faulting A fault is a fracture along where movement occurs
Faults are usually parallel to each other and the Faulting A fault is a crack in the Earth's crust
Faults usually form the boundaries between Earth's tectonic plates
Faults are usually parallel to each other
In an active fault, the pieces of the Earth's crust along a fault move over time. The moving rocks can cause earthquakes.
Inactive faults had movement along them at one time, but no longer move.
The type of motion along a fault depends on the type of fault.
The main types of faults are: dip-slip, reverse dip-slip and strike-slip faults Earthquakes Earthquakes Earthquakes happen because large blocks of the Earth's crust suddenly move past each other. The blocks meet at cracks called faults.
The location of where the earthquake begins is called the focus and the point directly above the focus, on the Earth's surface, is called the epicenter. Dip-Slip Fault Dip-slip faults occur in areas where the rocks are pulling apart.
The rock on one side is moved down.
An example of the dip-slip fault is the Owens Valley in Eastern California. Reverse Dip-Slip Fault Reverse dip-slip faults occur where rocks are pushed together.
The rock on one side of the fault is pushed up.
The exposed area of the fault is called an overhang.
The reverse dip-slip fault is called the thrust fault when the fault angle is very low.
Examples of the reverse dip-slip fault are the Rocky Mountains and the Himalayas. Strike-Slip Fault In a strike-slip fault, the rocks move horizontally.
Strike-slip faults usually do not make cliffs because the rocks are not moving up or down.
An example of this type of fault is the San Andreas Fault in California. An Anticline is an upward fold in the rock layers.
This type of fold is symmetrical. A Syncline fold is when the rock layers are warped downwards.
This type of fold is also symmetrical. Earthquake Formation Earthquakes are formed when there are sudden movements of tectonic plates at faults.
Any sudden shift in the tectonic plates will create earthquakes.
Scientists believe that there are about a million earthquakes every year, but only a few of them are large enough to cause any major damage to cities .
Some of the earthquakes are not even strong enough to be felt by humans. Haiti Earthquake
January 12, 2010 The Great Chilean Earthquake (Valdivia, Chile) - May 22, 1960 Bibliography
Christopherson, Robert W. Geosystems An Introduction to Physical Geography. 2nd ed. Toronto: Macmillan College Publishing Company, 1994. Print.

Smythe, James M., Charles G. Brown, Eric H. Fors, and Robert C. Lord. Physical Geography. Metric ed. Toronto: Gage Publishing Company, 1980. Print.


"The Science of Earthquakes." Earthquake Hazards Program. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Mar. 2013. <http://earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/kids/eqscience.php

"IRIS - What are the 4 basic classes of faults?." IRIS - Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology. National Science Foundation, n.d. Web. 20 Mar. 2013. <http://www.iris.edu/hq/programs/education_and_outreach/animations/2

"Earthquakes - General Interest Publication." USGS Publications Warehouse. US Department of the Interior, n.d. Web. 20 Mar. 2013. <http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/earthq1/how.html

"What Is a Geologic Fault?." Windows to the Universe. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Mar. 2013. <http://www.windows2universe.org/earth/geology/fault.html

"What Is an Earthquake?." Windows to the Universe. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Apr. 2013. <http://www.windows2universe.org/earth/geology/quake_1.html

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Pidwirny, M. (2006). "Crustal Deformation Processes: Folding and Faulting". Fundamentals of Physical Geography, 2nd Edition. 20 Mar. 2013. http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/10l.html Print: Non-Print: THE END! Types of Folds Anticline Fold Syncline Fold
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