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Guns Germs and Steel Timeline

Chapter 1

Helena Silva-Nichols

on 12 September 2013

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Transcript of Guns Germs and Steel Timeline

Guns Germs and Steel Timeline
35,000-14,000 Years Ago
Americas are first colonized.
12,000 BCE
Profusion of Clovis sites, named after the town of Clovis, New Mexico where characteristic large stone spearpoints are first recognized.
Approximately 11,000 BCE
Beginnings of village life in a few parts of the world
The first undisputed peopling of the Americas
The ends of the Pleistocene era
The last ice age
Start of the Recent Era
Earliest evidence of humans in Europe.
(It is assumed the colonization of Asia permitted the simultaneous colonization of Europe).
Location, Location, Location
First traces of human origins (for the first 5 or 6 million years everything is confined to Africa)
Roughly 7 Million Years Ago
4-1.7 Million Years Ago
Protohumans generally known as Australopithecus africanus, Homo habilis and Homo erectus, evolve (in that sequence).
1.8-1 Million Years Ago
First human ancestor (homo erectus) to spreads beyond Africa. (Fossils were discovered on the Southeast Asian island of Java and are dated to be from approximately 1.8 to 1 million years ago).
0.5 Million Years Ago
0.5 Million Years Ago
Human fossils diverge from older Homo erectus skeletons in their enlarged, rounder, less angular skulls.
>0.5 Million Years Ago
Human populations of Africa and western Eurasia diverge from each other in skeletal details and form East Asian populations .
130,000-40,000 Years Ago
Neanderthals, sometimes classified as Homo neanderthalensis come about.
(They had brains slightly larger than our own and were also the first humans to leave behind strong evidence of burying their dead and caring for their sick.)
100,000 Years Ago
African humans had more modern skeletons than their Neanderthal contemporaries.
(They also made essentially the same stone tools).
50,000 Years Ago
First signs of the
Standardized stone tools and the first preserved jewelry (ostrich-shell beads) come from East African sites.
40,000 Years Ago
Cro-Magnons, with their modern skeletons, superior weapons and other advanced cultural traits come into Europe.
(Evidence of this are artifacts found in southwestern Europe).
Within a few thousand years there were no more neanderthals in Europe.
40,000-30,000 Years Ago
Radiocarbon-dated sites attest to human presence in Australia and New Guinea
Approximately 30,000 Years Ago
Extinction of megafauna.
20,000 Years Ago
Anatomically modern people who possessed technology to survive in harsh climates expand into Siberia.
(The oldest unquestioned human remains in the Americas are sites in Alaska dated 12,000 BCE).
Clovis hunter arrives to Grand Canyon area and beyond.
>1,000 Years After Human's Arrival to America's
Clovis descendants reach Patagonia.
11,100 BCE
America's megafauna goes extinct.
The two most accurate pieces of evidence supporting this claim are the Shasta ground sloth and the Harrington's mountain goat in the Grand Canyon area; both of those populations disappeared within a century or two of 11,100 BCE.
8,500-4,000 BCE
Mediterranean islands such as Crete, Cyprus, Corsica, and Sardinia sustain humans.
4,000 BCE
Caribbean islands are occupied by humans.
AD 300 and 800
Madagascar is occupied by humans.
Australia / New Guinea
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