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Llanishen Tech YR12 - Coursework
Transcript of Llanishen Tech YR12 - Coursework
Sketching & Sketchbooks
Types of Sketching
1. Personal Communication Sketches aka the Doodle:
These are the scraggliest of the scraggers. The dirtiest of the dirty. They sketches that tend to live in the sketchbook or on discarded pieces of paper. The purpose of doodling and sketching so roughly is for you the designer to work out the issues with form or function, but in a looser more empathic way. These sketches tend to be most present at the genesis of the product concept. For me, these are the doodles I do when preoccupied in thought on the bus or train as I try to fiddle around with new ideas or sketch techniques.
2. The Thinking Sketch:
Al little more focused and refined, these sketches are usually alot cleaner than the scraggly doodles you find in a sketchbook. You may find yourself showing these to other designers, so you can make certain assumptions as you sketch and use cues that your colleagues would pick up on suck as hatching and contour lines. Simple gestural sketches could also fall into this category. .
3. The Technical Sketch
Designers bridge the gap between art and engineering. (you can decide for yourself what your role or mantra is) As such, sometimes it’s necessary when sitting and working with an engineer or clay modeler to then speak on their terms. That means pulling out the ol’ exploded views, cutaway views, and cross sections to help communicate your vision for the product your designing.
4. The Presentation Sketch:
This is where you bring out the big guns. These sketches tend to be a little more refined and thought out. you can think of them as being a little technical yet a little emotive. They serve to captivate the viewers interest while then explaining the concept visually. For a client that does not have the visual thinking skills of you fellow designers, it may be necessary to be a bit more explicit in how you explain things in your sketches (hence the technical aspect). Notes, callouts, different views – this is where you’ll want to be overt in how you express the idea.
Specifications/Ideas on content
So how could I do that?
Start by mind mapping/brainstorming
all your thoughts and considerations about a possible Specification...
There is nothing you can write that is wrong - providing your comments are your
thoughts about the topic/problem...
Legal and safety implications
Legislation, patents and copyright
Packaging and transport
Product Design Specification (PDS)
This is possibly the most important stage of the design process and yet one of the least understood stage. It is important that before you produce a 'solution' there is a true understanding of the actual problem. The PDS is a document listing the problem in detail. It is important to work with the customer and analyse the marketplace to produce a list of requirements necessary to produce a successful product. The designer should constantly refer back to this document to ensure designs are appropriate.
To produce the PDS it is likely that you will have to research the problem and analyse competing products and all important points and discoveries should be included in your PDS.
Various aspects relating to the product must be considered. The actual categories can vary, but a typical PDS may consist of the following categories:
The way a product 'looks' or it's aesthetics will have a major influence on its marketability. This is especially true for consumer items such as video recorders, fridge's and motor cars. However it is also true for many industrial products like milling machines. The appearance of a product must be built into a product at the design stage. A simple way to influence a product's appearance is through the selection of suitable colours and surface treatments.
Shape will also influence a customer's reaction. The selection of materials and manufacturing processes can have a decisive effect on the aesthetic appeal of a product and may have to be carefully considered. A good industrial designer will be able to integrate the functionality of a product with desirable aesthetic characteristics.
If there are competing products in the marketplace, it can be useful to research them and document any discoveries. Of particular important factor is the selling price of the competing products. The marketing department will usually use a number of different techniques to analyse competing organisations and their products.
Quality control has traditionally been carried out by the quality department. However, this is only one way in which the quality of a product can be ensured. It is more important to actually design the product with quality in mind. Tolerances and surface finishes should be specified in order to achieve a suitable product quality. However, there is no point in over specifying tolerances or surface finishes as this will result in expensive manufacturing costs.
The dimensions and weight of the product must be documented in the PDS. For exceptionally large or heavy products, special manufacturing processes and facilities may have to be considered. There may also be problems transporting a large product. Small or delicate products may present problems such as how to handle the components during manufacture so as not to damage them.
The quantity produced of a product will have a significant effect as to the type of manufacturing processes and materials that can be selected by the design team. A mass produced product is likely to imply investment in automated production processes and special tooling, while a batch or a one-off production run will not require such a large investment.
Most finished products require testing to ensure that it meets the requirements laid out in the PDS. For mass produced products, testing will be carried out on a set number of products rather than every product. For example a company producing 1000 products a day, it is likely that the company would test say 50 a day to ensure the quality of each batch of products is of a sufficient quality to be marketable. For one-off products, or products produced in limited numbers, testing may be performed on every product to satisfy the customer that the product meets their requirements. Such tests may be witnessed by a representative of the customer. The costs associated with testing can be significant, requiring investment in personnel or testing equipment. In some cases it may not be possible to carry out a full-scale test. For large items of machinery, the manufacturer may not have the facilities to carry out a full-scale test and so may test a scale model, or test at some other location.
It is vital that the needs of the customer or intended customer are taken into account when drawing up a PDS. The customer is the reason the product is being developed and if the customer does not like the final product or the product's specifications do not meet the customer requirements, the product is likely to be unsuccessful.
Different markets will have imposed different requirements for a product to succeed. If a product is being aimed at a particular market, extensive research should be carried out to identify these requirements.
Documentation for a product should include sufficient instruction details so that the customer is able to use the product and so that maintenance personnel can do any required routine maintenance. From legal and safety perspectives, it is desirable that an organisation does this so as not to leave themselves open to law suits resulting from incorrect operation of their products. For large projects or products, the documentation involved can contribute substantially to the overall cost of the product; hence the amount and type of documentation required should be specified in the PDS.
The environment a product encounters from manufacture through to delivery to the customer should be considered. Most products will be expected to operate in a wide range of environments. This will determine the selection of materials used. Some factors that should be considered include:
•The temperature range.
•Dirt or dust that may affect the product.
•Pressure and humidity ranges.
•The degree of neglect and abuse the product will be exposed to.
•Vibration and noise levels.
Ergonomics investigates how the user interacts with the product. (E.g. in the case of a car, an ergonomic requirement might be that the control panels are not more than one metre away from the driver's seat). The designer must consider the targeted user at the design stage so that the finished product is usable. Major limitations that must be considered are:
• Size issues (E.g. will a driver be able to reach the pedals on a motor car).
• Reaction times (Will an operator be able to respond in the required time to some situation).
• The users strength (E.g. for a manually powered item, will the user be able to generate sufficient power)
The PDS should state who is responsible for the installation of the product. For some products (notably large items of machinery), installation costs can be comparable with the actual cost of the product, hence installation costs need to be built into the selling price if installation is to be performed by the manufacturing organisation.
The lead time, is the time required from the initial start of the project to the delivery to the first customer. The lead time associated with product design and manufacture should be specified in the PDS. For some products, the lead time may be as short as a few weeks. However, for more complex products, the lead time may be considerably longer. Development time for a new car may be several years while aircraft may take ten years from start to finish. In general, the quicker the product can be introduced into the marketplace, the more successful it will be. This is especially true of high technology products such as computers, there is no point introducing a product into the market that is obsolete immediately.
Legal and safety implications
A manufacturer has to consider any product liability legislation and areas where potential defects may lead to the customer to sue the manufacturer. EEC countries are now adopting US style product liability laws, leaving manufacturers open to expensive lawsuits if their products are found to be at fault. Hence, the safety of the product is of paramount importance.
Legislation, patents and copyright
A new product must comply with any legislation concerning it's manufacture or use by the customer. Typical legislation that must be complied with include:
• Product liability law.
• Health and safety legislation.
• European economic community laws.
• Factory inspectors.
• Environmental laws (These can have implications for the manufacture, the products use and also the disassembly and disposal of the product).
When a new product is developed, it is important to ensure that it does not clash with any patents that have been registered. If it does, the original patent holder may take legal action or have rights to royalty payments. However, patents do not always stifle the product development process. Patents can give designers and marketing personnel new ideas as to products to develop and markets to exploit. Many patents are registered with a holder either unable or unwilling to commercially exploit the idea so organisations can buy up the rights to a patent and exploit the idea.
If the product contains written or graphical material, it is important not to infringe copyright. Material written by another person may be summarised but not be copied. The copyright for items such as photographs belongs to the person who originally took the photograph, so permission must be obtained before using them. This should be written and not just verbal permission
The service-life of a product should sufficient so that there is no need for major overhauls to the product. However most products will require routine maintenance to ensure efficient operation. If it is known that some of the components or parts are likely to require routine maintenance, access to these parts should be as easy as possible. The maintenance schedule will also affect what spares are supplied as standard with a product. If any special tools are required for maintenance, this should be outlined in the PDS.
In most cases, the choice of materials will be left to the design team to decide on, after the PDS has been drawn up. In this way, the design team can specify materials which are the most suitable for the particular case. However, in some cases, a customer or feedback from market analysis can determine the need for a particular material to be used. A common example of this is that exposed aluminium alloy surfaces are not permitted on equipment for use in underground mines.
Packaging and transport
The type of packaging specified in the PDS. For industrial products, packaging is likely to be functional only used to protect the product during transit and storage. The packaging for a consumer type product may need to be eye-catching to a potential customer. The type of packaging used influences the transportation method used to move the product factory to the customer or shop. The product may be transported in lorries, ships or other forms of transport so care needs to be taken to ensure that the product is suited to the type of transportation envisaged. There are well documented cases when products being designed for export that arrive at the docks but will not fit in the hull of the ship. Consideration of the type of transport at the design stage can eradicate these potentially costly and embarrassing situations.
The performance category of the PDS outlines the main features of the function of the product. For instance, when outlining a PDS for a motor vehicle, typical questions that will need answering are :
• What will the maximum speed of the vehicle be ?
• How fast will the vehicle be required to accelerate at ?
• How much load will the vehicle be required to carry ?
• What minimum fuel consumption will be allowable ?
In order to specify a product's performance it may be necessary to ask a large number of such questions. However care should be taken in order not to over specify a product's performance so that it becomes unrealistic to economically produce it. For example specifying that the design of a new family car should be capable of 150 miles per hour would be unrealistic.
Product life can be used to describe two different things.
Service Life - The amount of time a product is expected to operate correctly in service without the need for major overhaul.
Product Life - The length of time a manufacturer will produce a product for before replacing it with a new model. The service life of a product will be of paramount importance when the product is being designed. A manufacturer will acquire a bad reputation and loose sales if their products are known to regularly fail. However, there is no point in 'over designing' a product so that it lasts long past it's projected life time as this will result in an overly expensive product. The projected service life of a product will also have a major influence on what type of guarantee is provided for product longevity. A product should operate perfectly until the day after the intended product life span and then every component should simultaneously fail. This concept known as 'planned obsolescence' is carried out by many consumer companies.
From internal market research, it has been decided that IWC need to design a general purpose winch to sell to the cable and pipe laying market sector. The winch should be portable but have mounting points for the end user. It is important that the winch sits within out current range of 'Excel General Purpose winches'.
1.1 Lift / lower a load of 2.5 tonnes (+/- 10%).
1.2 Draw in cable in at a rate of 0.2 m/s.
1.3 The winch drive should cut out when the load exceeds 10% of the specified load.
1.4 Drive to stop lowering load when only 1.5 metres of cable remains on winch drum.
1.5 Winch should operate with forward, reverse, stop and inch facility.
1.6 Any braking system employed, should produce a braking torque of 150% the full load torque.
1.7 Winch should have a manual device to control the brake release and load descent in the event of a power failure.
1.8 In the event of the winch 'overrunning', a manual safety relay/braking device should operate within 1 second or before the load exceeds a speed of 3m/s.
1.9 The product should be portable but with the option for permanent mounting.
1.10 The product must use a portable power source, preferably a diesel engine.
1.11 The weight of the product must be sufficient to aid the stability of the product.
1.12 Efficiency of the unit should be high, preferably in the area of 20 - 30%.
1.13 The drum should hold 50m of cable.
2.1 The winch drive and power unit should be power unit.
2.2 The unit will be mainly used in European weather conditions. But we could expect sales of about 2% unit volume to the Far East.
2.3 Temperature ranges:
-28 degree C - European
12 - 44 degree C - Far East
2.4 The product may experience humid conditions.
2.5 Corrosion resistance may be considered by the use of special materials or surface protection methods.
2.6 Any noise from the equipment should not exceed 95 dB at a distance of 1.0m.
2.7 The winch will be stored in suppliers warehouses before sales.
3.0 Product Life Span
3.1 Product will be on the market for 10 years.
3.2 Spare parts will be available for a further 5 years after that.
4.0 Life in Service
4.1 Should withstand an operating period of 1 hr uninterrupted use per day for 5 years.
4.2 Life in service should be assessed against the criteria outlined in the Performance and Environment categories.
5.0 Shelf Life
5.1 The product will be stored on-site for up to 1 month before dispatched.
5.2 Our Far East distributor may store the product for several months.
6.0 Target Costs
6.1 The product should have an end-user cost of £5500 within Britain.
6.2 The cost of manufacture should be less than £2750.
6.3 The cost of packaging and shipping should be no more than 15% of the manufacturing cost.
7.1 150 units in the first year, increasing to 800 within four years.
8.1 To be maintenance free except for light lubrication once a month and a recommended service every two years.
8.2 Parts requiring lubrication should be accessible within 15 minutes without the use of special tools or equipment.
8.3 All fasteners used should comply with BS6105.
8.4 Spares should be available for 5 years after the product is replaced with a new model.
8.5 No special tools should be required for maintenance.
9.1 Initially to be manufactured for the European market but our Far Eastern distributors in Singapore, Hong Kong and Australia will be able to find a market for the product.
9.2 The winch should be operating against equivalent models which include the following companies:
• Swansom - England
• Oholom - Sweden
• Winderhock - Germany
9.3 Applicable markets:
• Telecom - Cable laying
• Gas and Electricity operators
• Pipe laying services
• Civil Engineering Operations
9.4 Summary of market requirements:
• Portable winch which can be attached to vans and low loaders
• Use portable power source
• To be used in all weather
• To allow one man operation
• To have at least 40m of cable
• To pull 2000kg
10.1 Packaging / transport cost should be kept to a minimum and preferably below 5% of the unit cost.
11.0 Size and Weight Restrictions
11.1 Weight should not exceed 500 kg.
11.2 Length not to exceed 2500 mm.
11.3 Width not to exceed 2000mm.
11.4 Height not to exceed 2000mm.
12.1 Product will be shipped by road within Europe.
12.2 Product will be shipped by sea to Far Eastern markets.
13.0 Manufacturing Processes
13.1 Capacity is available for current market demand within scope to increase production to 200 per year without investment / expansion.
13.2 Motors, transmissions, bearing and ropes are bought in from the following suppliers:
• Electric Motors - Brook Compton
• Diesel Engines - Gardener
• Hydraulic Motors - Hydrostatic Transmission Ltd
• RHP Bearings
• Couplings - Wellman Bibby
• Worm Gears - Reynold
• Planetary Gears - David Brown (PPG Divisions)
• In-Line Gears - David Brown Radicon Ltd
• V-belts - Fenner
13.3 Castings and injection moulds produced by external suppliers.
14.1 The form can follow function.
14.2 If cost dictates, the winch should look attractive to improve our perception within the market.
15.1 Controls to be mounted in an accessible position, relative to the operator i.e. waist height - around 1m, to accommodate 95% of the working population.
15.2 All controls should be hand operated, requiring one-hand operation with a maximum force of 1.5 N/m2
15.3 One man should be able to operate the product.
16.0 Customer Requirements
17.1 The winch will be operating against equivalent models which include the following companies:
• Swansom - England
• Oholom - Sweden
• Winderhock - Germany
18.0 Quality and Reliability
18.1 Quality should be such that winches should not generally fail within a period of three years and only 1 in 50 should fail within the first year.
18.2 No winch should fail in the area of the safety overload device.
19.0 Standards and Specifications
19.1 Standards to be adhered to:
• BS 5000 part 99 Motor Performance
• BS 6105 and BSEN 20898(1) Bolts
• BS 6322(2) & BS 4320 Nuts and washers
• BS 7676 and BS 4517 Gears
• BS 3019 Welding
• BS 5989 Bearings
• BS 2754 Electrical Insulation
• BS 5646 pt4 Bearing Housing
• BS 4235 Keys and Keyways
• BS 7664 Painting
• BS 1399 Seals
20.0 Company Constraints
20.1 None - except those outlines in Manufacturing and Processes.
21.1 All components to be of metric form and comply with ISO 4900 for limits and fits.
22.1 No winch should fail in the area of the safety overload device.
22.2 Winch should not operate when maintenance is being carried out.
23.1 Testing is to be carried out on 5% of units.
23.2 All cables should be tested to BS3621.
24.0 Possible litigation lies in the user injuring themselves by having access to moving parts during winch operation.
26.1 Product should be supplied with a user manual covering winch operation and maintenance.
26.2 Suppliers require maintenance and repair manual.
27.1 Plastic parts should be separable and marked to aid disposal.
Example of a detailed Specification
Analysis / Synthesis
Research must be wide ranging and have a reason. Why are you looking into that? Where is it going to lead you? Throughout your whole portfolio you must evidence your thinking and clearly show LINKS between the sections of the design process.
· Brainstorming/Mind mapping/Lists.
· Inspiration Boards—Could Include the following; General, Target Audience or Client (Mood board), Place or Situation, Materials & Colours or Textures.
· Materials and Processes—you may have to come back to this page/s.
· What requirements have to be met? Have you shown you have covered everything?
AS Product Design
Lights and Lighting are all around us, they have a huge variety of uses and functions including decoration and creating ambience.
Design a lighting system for a named environment or location that could incorporate laminating or slotting together as a theme;
Examine and analyse an existing lighting design and any associated products you could use to help you, include all points on the A4 product Analysis Sheet.
Show that you have selected a named environment or location – create an image board to support this.
Create an Inspiration Board on you chosen theme.
Produce a user profile board.
Use the information gathered to assist you in the design and manufacture of a light or lighting system.
Identify the problem
Analyse the problem
Organise research topics and sources
* Decide what issue you are trying to
* Agree on who the audience is.
* Prioritize this project in terms of urgency.
* Determine what will make this project
* Establish a glossary of terms.
* Review the history of the issue/product/related products;
remember any existing obstacles.
* Collect examples of other attempts to solve the same issue.
* Talk to your end-users, that brings you the most fruitful ideas for later design
Your Target Audience
Detail your primary, secondary and tertiary audiences. Explain if you are looking to consolidate your existing client-base or appeal to new markets.
Detail any demographic figures about your audience that may be useful to the designer. These may include:
Good design can have a huge influence on the success of a company's marketing strategy - but in order for success to be ensured, clear goals must be set.
For example, do you want to:
• Generate sales?
• Encourage enquiries?
• Gain newsletter subscribers?
• Obtain information from your audience?
• Encourage them to tell a friend?
If your aims and objectives are not this clear, then your design brief has already achieved another purpose... One of most rewarding parts of actually sitting down and writing a design brief is that it helps to clarify your thoughts and can indirectly help to find flaws in what you initially thought was a solid idea.
Conversations and thinking on paper..
So what next?
Performance questions are usually the first to occur to engineers, so make these the first you answer.
•What exactly is your product going to do?
•How fast will it run?
•Constantly or intermittently?
•Under what loads?
•For how long?
Remember, the more complex the product, the greater the likelihood of needing to specify ranges of values, rather than single, fixed values.
Eg The lawn-edge trimmer must easily produce straight, clearly defined edges, and smooth, curved edges. Uneven or wet lawns must present no problem. It should cut a straight edge of 1.5m in one minute (curved edges will probably take longer). The trimmer should not damage any nearby bedding plants. Users must be able to take the trimmer from storage and use it directly, without needing to set it except to fit attachments and adjust the height. The trimmer should make no more noise than a Flymo lawn-mower.
Specifying a high performance product is one thing. Paying for it is another. Be realistic. Can the performance you desire be realised at a reasonable cost? Companies do not want to make products customers cannot afford.
Also, beware of overspecifying. Whereas specialist items or one-offs are sometimes held up by belts as well as braces by over-cautious designers, mass-produced items are seldom overspecified. Companies cannot afford the unnecessary expense.
3 Target production cost
This is an estimate of what it will cost to make your product. Set a figure early in the design process:
•Be realistic. Beware of underestimating
•At the same time, bear in mind the prices of competing products; study cost patterns carefully
•Estimate the cost of production in the factory. Too high a cost will price you out of the market
If your company uses whole life costing, take account of maintenance trade-off and down-time.
How many units are to be produced? The numbers, too, affect production cost. One-offs usually need little tooling. Small product runs often just need cheap, temporary tooling. Large runs can mean permanent, expensive tooling.
We estimate that ten million households have gardens, of which 30% have a lawn, and that 30% of these households would want to trim the lawns edge. Still, only 60% of these households would be prepared to buy a lawn-edge trimmer. If the proposed design captures 10% of this market, and people replace their trimmers every five years, this works out at 10,000 trimmers per year.
5 Manufacturing facilities
How much of your product is to be made in-house and how much bought elsewhere? If everything is to be made in-house, your design may be constrained by the company's existing machinery:
•Check that your product can be produced on this
•Check whether there are any plans to replace existing machinery
•Think ahead to later developments of your product. Will the machinery be able to cope with these too?
6 Product life span
Estimate for how long the product is likely to stay on the market. This can affect important decisions: a long projected life span can make it worth investing in tools or plant which would not be justified for a short product life.
Understanding customers' needs and preferences can greatly increase your product's chance of being successful. Find out as much about them as you can. If possible, talk to customers face to face. If not, use other methods, like postal surveys, to find out what they want.
Our questionnaire shows that consumers would not be prepared to spend more than £25 on a trimmer. The trimmer should cost between £10 and £20. Our survey indicates that the people most likely to purchase trimmers are middle-aged
Analysing the competition your product will face is essential. A thorough analysis would cover:
•all the relevant literature (possibly over a hundred papers)
•any applicable patents (sometimes up to a hundred)
•competing products themselves (sometimes at least fifty).
Consider not only products competing directly with yours but also similar or related ones, and not only existing products but also any others likely to be on the market when yours is released. Use parametric methods for these comparisons. This analysis can be laborious, but remember: for that very reason, not everybody does it. By analysing the competition, you could well give your product the edge.
Most of this trimmer's performance requirements are straight forward and already met by existing trimmers and shears. However, available trimmers do not give a smooth curve, and using shears is slow. Also, existing trimmers damage lawns too easily and are not accompanied by clear enough instructions. Blade parts on existing electric trimmers need to be replaced several times a year. This should not be necessary more than three times
9 Service life
How long do you intend your product to last? Take account of what proportion of the day, month or year it will actually be running, and at what rate. Different periods of service may be required of different parts of the product. For example, the devices that pump water onto car windscreens are typically designed for a service life of just 24 hours. This is not very long, but still allows for over 17000 five-second applications of the pump
Try to anticipate any aspects of the product's likely environment that will affect the product or be affected by it, including:
•ambient temperature, pressure and humidity
•dirt, dust and insects
•corrosive fluids and chemicals
•vibration and noise
•wear and tear in handling.
Do not consider just the environment the product will eventually be used in. Think also of the product in storage and in transit.
The trimmer should be able to withstand a drop of 4' onto a concrete floor without parts misaligning, buckling, or fracturing. It should sustain only surface damage such as scratches and small dents. The trimmer should be able to withstand impact by stones, dog bones and other garden debris without any detrimental effect on its performance. The material should not be liable to attack by fungi, or it should be treated to prevent such an attack.
The materials used should be able to withstand:
* prolonged exposure to damp or wet conditions, without swelling, warping, or losing strength to an extent that results in either a loss of performance or a shortening of the products life
* prolonged contact with soil, grass saps, weed-killers, moss-killers, fertilisers, fungicides and pesticides, without corrosion, loss of performance, or a shortening of the product's life
* attack by sea air, or the atmospheric pollution in industrial areas.
The materials used should not discolour or crack in reaction to sunlight.
The trimmer should be able to be hung vertically for months at a time in a temperature range of 20C to 50C without undergoing enough creep to affect performance or product life.
The trimmer's design and materials must be such that differential expansion is not a problem. Correct distances between parts must be maintained, with no fouling, in the temperature range encountered in use, ie 10C to 50C. The trimmer should also withstand dropping at this temperature.
Are there any constraints on the maximum size of your product? Make sure it will fit into its intended location and still leave room for maintenance.
Consider your product's weight. Heavy products can be hard to handle in production, in transit, and during installation. Provide lifting points if necessary.
The trimmer should weigh between 4 and 6 lbs.
When you decide the product's maintenance requirements:
•Observe your company's policy on maintenance, if it has one
•Consider how much maintenance customers will expect and be equipped to carry out
•Remember that the less maintenance a product is designed to need, the more expensive it tends to be
•Make it easy to get at parts that will need maintenance.
Replacing worn parts should be quick and simple, without needing specialised tools or undue force.
When a part of the trimmer is replaced, it should not be possible to alter any other part.
Parts should not need to be replaced for reconditioning more than once every two years, unless they are cheap (ie not more than 50 pence) and readily available. In that case they must need replacing no more than 3 times a year.
The trimmer should not need oiling more than once a year.
When you decide what materials to use:
•Specify any special materials, and quote the appropriate standards
•Specify any materials that must not be used, like toxic substances for consumer products, or in some cases aluminium for exposed surfaces.
The materials used in the production of the trimmer must be readily available, easily fabricated, and of the required properties. These include resistance to stones and other garden waste being flung onto them, and to being dropped 5 feet (if the trimmer falls off a peg on the shed wall). The materials must also resist the rapid corrosion induced by wet grass, and corrosive agents such as sap.
If electrical components are required, they must have the correct insulative or conductive properties.
15 Special processes
Special manufacturing processes - as opposed to techniques - are sometimes called for, for example for plating or wiring specify any special processes that apply, using your company's own process specifications if it has them. Otherwise, refer to the relevant British Standards.
To keep the manufacturing costs at a minimum, familiar production techniques like extrusion, forging, or die-casting will be used.
All products have an interface with people. They have to be operated, adjusted, examined, maintained, and so on.
Design ergonomically: make your product easy to work with. Remember such things as the height, posture and strength of the people who will deal with it.
The trimmer should be comfortable to operate for both left-handed and right-handed people, from a standing position and without the need for bending or stretching. Very little physical effort should be required to operate it. Since the trimmer is aimed at middle-aged and retired people, who may have back problems, this is important.
The hand grip should be comfortable to hold in the temperature range specified in "Environment."
The trimmer will be adjustable for comfortable use by people of 5ft. 2in. (min) and 6ft. 2in. (max). They must be able to carry the trimmer the length of the garden
Think from the start about the eventual appearance of your product. It will be the first thing to strike anybody considering buying it
The trimmer should look easy to use, and tough enough to last, without looking clumsy. It should look robust and compact, but not too heavy to use. It should look efficient and easy to manipulate.
Before deciding on shape, form, colour, and surface finish, try out your ideas on people from sales and marketing departments, and listen to their advice. It is very hard to improve the appearance of an unattractive product once it has been made.
It should have an attractive finish. Metal parts should be chromed or painted, and parts should show no surface defects and have smooth surfaces. It should be predominantly green, orange, blue or any combination of these colours.
19 Quality and reliability
Although quality and reliability are hard to quantify, you must put figures on them nonetheless. Values for mean time before failure (MTBF) and mean time to repair (MTTR) are often given in electronics, but these measures are not so suitable for mechanical, hydraulic, or other less predictable components. Here you could refer to the company's records for statistical data on the performance of similar products in the past. British Standards 5750 and 5760 also give helpful guidance.
Will the product need special packing for transport, storage or protection?
Take account of the cost and bulk of any packing.
How is the product to be delivered?
•Make sure it is not too big for any pallets or vehicles that will carry it
•Make sure it can be lifted easily
•Take account of shipping costs.
22 Industry standards
If your product is to meet International or British standards, specify the applicable standards and study them in detail. If it is to meet both, carefully relate the two sets to each other. At all costs avoid having to revise a finished design to fit a previously overlooked standard
The trimmer must conform to any relevant British Standards, ie that for electrical equipment (such as motors, switches and likewise), and that regarding safety of household electrical appliances: BS 3456 Part 2, Section 232 (1974).
23 Shelf life / storage life
After leaving the factory or workshop, products can stay uninstalled and unused for some time, and begin to deteriorate. Eventually, gearboxes rust, rubber parts perish, and bearings seize up so specify your product's shelf life (or, for large plant, its storage life).
The trimmer should have a shelf life of at least one year, and not show any evidence of having been stored.
After your product has been made, it will need a factory test to see whether it actually complies on every point with its PDS. Plan for this test now. Write a test specification answering questions like these:
•What proportion of the production run will you take as a sample for testing?
•What test rig will you use and how much will it cost?
•How will you collect the data?
As well as factory tests, some products need acceptance and witness tests. Plan these now too if necessary.
Prior to launching the product, accelerated corrosion tests should be carried out to simulate ten years' exposure to the environmental conditions mentioned in "Environment," assuming 1 day's exposure every two weeks for 28 weeks in the year.
Fatigue tests should be carried out to simulate 10 years' service, on the same assumption.
Abrasion tests should be carried out on any coated or mating surfaces.
All relevant British standard tests must be carried out.
If electric motors are to be used, they must be tested.
The trimmers should be tested on an AQL basis with a level of 2.5 for compliance with the performance requirements specified, and also for the requirements given in "Environment."
Design for safety, and inform yourself of any statutory obligations.. Emphasise safety in your operating instructions
The trimmer must be easy to operate. The user must be free to concentrate on using it rather than on manipulating several controls at once.
BS 3456, Part 2, Section 232 (1974), dealing with the safety of household electrical appliances, should be observed
Check that the necessary expertise will be available for each stage of the product's development.
27 Market constraints
Local conditions, especially overseas, can constrain your design. Check them out.
The major market constraint is that the electricity supply varies from country to country. The trimmer must be usable in this country and abroad.
28 Political and social factors
Anything from inconvenient bye-laws to consumer fashions can decide the commercial fate of a product. Carefully research any such constraints.
29 Design time
When you schedule your project, be sure to allow enough time at the beginning for the design phase. Failing to do so is a common and costly mistake. At best, rushed designs need to be modified during or after production, which only disrupts the schedule at a later stage: at worst, they simply fail to work or to sell.
Allow plenty of time for design.
Why will looking at other products help me?
Detailed analysis of range of products — Fittings/Existing industry produced product/s & One off products.
Above and below the line.
Materials and Processes.
User trails—target audience/market type.
Product lifecycles & relationship to Boston matrix.
All must be evidenced to lead you into appropriate research—link your Research to your Product Analysis work.
Switches, bulbs, plugs, transformers, materials used, adjustability, touch, sense, feel, safety, heat, hot, electricity, purpose, use, cost, colour, location, quality, repair, replace, maintain, type, warm,
This is what you need to do a specific job, whether it's reading, working at a computer, cooking, drawing or sewing. It needs to be focused on the area you're using.
If light seeps out, you're likely to get glare from other surfaces, especially computer screens. Task lights come with tungsten, halogen or fluorescent bulbs, the Anglepoise being the best example.
What to look for in a task light
Go for a fully adjustable Anglepoise-style lamp, especially a cantilevered one, that can be angled and lowered.
Don't skimp on the price of your angled lamp. If the stem is too short it will be hard to get it high enough over your work, which will cause shadows. The more manoeuvrability the better.
Use inexpensive pull-down pendants or clip-ons.
Clip-on spotlights are useful, as you can move them to wherever they're needed.
Your light should be able to take a 60 watt bulb at least, as it must be brighter than the others in the room.
Working with task lights
Place the lamp opposite your writing hand or you'll be working in your own shadow. The beam of the light should fall on your working area and not reflect onto your computer screen. If there's no space on your desk for a lamp, fit a strip light above it.
This gives texture, focus and shape to general lighting, adding depth and shade, with shadows in some corners and pools of light in others. It's formed by a mixture of halogen spotlights, downlighters, uplighters, tracks and table lamps. With the latter, use opaque shades that direct light down and prevent it spilling out. Tracks are great for lighting different areas of a room.
Once the basics are in place, decide which possessions to highlight, whether it's glass, a favourite picture or a table decoration.
Glass: light from below or behind. From below, place a row of low-voltage halogen spotlights beneath the shelf or a fluorescent strip hidden from view in a casing. From behind, use fluorescent strips not halogen, which doesn't give the right effect.
Books: clip a spotlight on the underside of the shelf or put wall washers into the ceiling.
Pictures and paintings: it's tricky to light paintings well - and if they're behind glass you have the additional problem of glare. To avoid glare and give an even distribution of light, use an 'eyeball' light that can swivel, and set it to 'flood' (a broad beam). You could also mount an adjustable spotlight on a ceiling track and point it at a focal point in the painting.
Plants: read the care instructions to check whether the plant loves sunlight or needs to be kept out of it. For a large pot, put an uplighter or a spotlight recessed into the floor behind it. The light bounces off the floor and the ceiling and diffuses back into the foliage of the plant to create unusual shadows. You can also buy tiny light 'spikes' that fit into the pot.
Ambient or background lighting, plays the part of daylight and is usually provided by a central pendant light, a hangover from the days of gas lamps. It can be the source of most lighting problems as it creates a bland, flat effect.
However, if you supplement general lighting with some or all of the other types, you'll end up with a great, flexible scheme. Staples include ceiling-mounted bowls, wall lights, downlighters, uplighters and standard lamps.
Types of lighting
To make the most of the natural light available in your home, you need to know how to use it. Think about which rooms to use for what - you don't have to stick to the estate agent's details. And remember that daylight changes throughout the year. With the grey northern light in Britain, we don't have to worry about screening out strong sun, but you might find bright summer light uncomfortable to sit in. Conversely, harsh winter sunlight can make everything appear flat.
Write your own product analysis of the solar lantern, identifying its strengths and any ways in which you think it could be improved. Then redesign the lantern, trying to improve on the weaknesses you have identified in the product analysis. Make a model of your new design.
Investigate the solar lantern and the photovoltaic panel used to power it. Can you find a way to integrate the two components more effectively? Sketch some of your ideas.
? The wind-up radio by Trevor Baylis was redesigned for sale in developed countries. Can you redesign the solar lantern to make it suitable for sale to a wider group of people?
? Look at other forms of outdoor lights that use battery power (e.g. lights that are used to warn road users of roadworks). Could you use the same recharging technology for these? Redesign one of the lights you have identified.
? Investigate what else solar power is used for. Use the applications of solar power that you have discovered in your sketch book as design ideas.
? Find out how a lead-acid accumulator works. What factors affect the charging rate of the battery and the amount of power the device can deliver?
? Investigate the different types of rechargeable batteries available. Draw up a chart that compares their characteristics and suggests suitable uses for each.
Every day we use thousands of different products, from telephones to bikes and drinks cans to washing machines. But have you ever thought about how they work or the way they are made?
Every product is designed in a particular way - product analysis enables us to understand the important materials, processing, economic and aesthetic decisions which are required before any product can be manufactured. An understanding of these decisions can help us in designing and making for ourselves.
The first task in product analysis is to become familiar with the product! What does it do? How does it do it? What does it look like? All these questions, and more, need to be asked before a product can be analysed. As well as considering the obvious mechanical (and possibly electrical) requirements, it is also important to consider the ergonomics, how the design has been made user-friendly and any marketing issues - these all have an impact on the later design decisions.
Let's take the example of a bike:
•What is the function of a bicycle?
•How does the function depend on the type of bike (e.g. racing, or about-town, or child's bike)?
•How is it made to be easily maintained?
•What should it cost?
•What should it look like (colours etc.)?
•How has it been made comfortable to ride?
•How do the mechanical bits work and interact?
If you do this exercise for various products, you will very quickly discover something interesting...
Systems and components
There are 2 main types of product - those that only have one component (e.g. a spatula) and those that have lots of components (e.g. a bike). Products with lots of components we call systems. For example:
BikeFrame, wheels, pedals, forks, etc.
DrillCase, chuck, drill bit, motor, etc.
Multi-gymSeat, weights, frame, wire, handles, etc.
In product analysis, we start by considering the whole system. But, to understand why various materials and processes are used, we usually need to 'pull it apart' and think about each component as well. We can now analyse the function in more detail
If you don't know what words mean google them... don't assume or guess.
Then brainstorm what you have written, show you are considering everything, show all your thoughts and questions... everything, every opportunity or idea, every consideration and thought... there are no rules - questions questions questions.... Why? How? Who? Could? Should? Can? When? How? Where? What? etc........
PAGE 1: Portfolio
Year 8 example
Diary - keep a diary of your work/thought etc... like a journal - day by day is best weekly is ok...
(i)Research and analysis – 4-7 sheets – including some related products and items
(ii)Design Brief and Specification – 1-2 sheets depending on detail in Spec
(iii)Design considerations and investigation - 3 sheets
(iv)Generating proposals – Sketch Book -
(v)Development details – Sketch Book + 2 - 4 sheets CAD work
(vi)Detail designing - 2 sheets/CAD sketch up
(vii)Planning/Quality Assurance/Quality Control - 1 sheet
(viii)Evaluation - 2 sheets plus ongoing comments relating to Spec and Research
These figures are given as an approximate guide only – examiners will assess the design and make task against the published assessment criteria rather than by the number of design sheets or report pages. It is suggested that, as an alternative to including material in the A2 sized design folio, the planning, section and use of materials, evaluation and economic factors (costings) content could form the basis of an A4 project report as described at the end of this resource.