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What is GPAI?
Transcript of What is GPAI?
There are two most commonly accepted game performance assessment instruments to use in combination with a Teaching Games for Understanding (TGFU) approach which are the Game Performance Assessment Instrument (GPAI) and the Team Sport Assessment Procedure (TSAP) (Fried & Maxwell, 2009; Grehaigne, Richard, & Griffin, 2005; Griffin & Butler, 2005; Mitchell, Griffin, & Oslin, 1994, Pill, 2008). TGFU is an approach which deviates from the original technique or content based approach and rather moves towards a student based approach linking both tactical awareness and skill (Thorpe, Bunker, & Almond, 1986). GPAI and TSAP allow for the formal assessment of various components of game play (Griffin & Butler, 2005).The GPAI assessment method is based on an “authentic assessment” which assesses all areas of game performance by observing players off the ball and on the ball skill (Hopper, 2003; Mitchell, Griffin, & Oslin, 1994). The GPAI includes 7 components related to game performance which can be further examined in table 1, all 7 components do not apply to all games some may be omitted. TSAP enables the identification of a player’s specific variables in relation to two areas, how a player obtains possession and also how a player releases their possession (Grehaigne, Richard, & Griffin, 2005; Memmert & Harvey, 2008, Pill, 2008). The TSAP has been shown to be a valid and reliable assessment method to be used (Nadeau, Richard, & Godbout, 2008).
Assessment Instruments for use with Teaching Games for Understanding.
How can educators use these assessment procedures to plan for students?
These Assessments allows for determination of students specific knowledge on areas of tactical awareness and technical skill. Teachers will be able to determine areas which may need specific training or support. These assessments allow educators to effectively organise a planning cycle within and across lessons linking tactical problems, assessment student and teacher reflection and situated game play (Grehaigne, Richard, & Griffin, 2005, p.90) . Allowing students to perform these assessments through observations of their peers allows them to understand the totality of game behaviours required for successful game performance (Pill, 2008).
From what age can students begin to reliably peer assess?
Majority of findings suggest that students can accurately assess their peers using assessment procedures with precision from age 10, or year 5 onwards (Butler, Griffin, Lombardo, & Nastasi, 2003; Richard, Godbout, & Grehaigne, 2000; Richard J. , Godbout, Tousignant, & Grehaigne, 1999) and teachers have also showed confidence in the precision of students ability to assess (Richard J. , Godbout, Tousignant, & Grehaigne, 1999). It has been suggested that for lower year levels, adaptions may be made to the original assessment procedures in order to cater to the student’s capabilities for observing, recording, reading comprehension and computational skills (Butler, Griffin, Lombardo, & Nastasi, 2003). An example of adaption might include students counting runs and outs for each player in a game, a simplified assessment method. Considering the variations in student’s ability to observe some solutions have been provided. It has been proposed that matching those with weaker observation abilities with those students that show confidence in observation may result in more accurate assessment (Richard, Godbout, & Grehaigne, 2000; Richard J. , Godbout, Tousignant, & Grehaigne, 1999). Another option would be to allow those exceptional students (learning, behavioural problems) to observe students with an expected low volume of play (Richard, Godbout, & Grehaigne, 2000). In order to assess the reliability of peer assessment educators might choose to also assess game performance and make comparisons with student observations (Butler, Griffin, Lombardo, & Nastasi, 2003).
Table 1: Components of game play (GPAI) from (Mitchell, Oslin, & Griffin, 2006, p. 497)
Figure 1: TSAP components of game play adapted from (Mitchell, Oslin, & Griffin, 2013)
Some concerns for further development?
Memmert and Harvey (2008) identified some concerns when using GPAI and considered some solutions for these problems. Some problems can be addressed quickly whereas further research is required for some solutions. The problems determined by Memmert and Harvey (2008) included calculation of individual and overall game performance the calculation allows for a result of zero to occur even when a student has been involved in game play (Memmert & Harvey, 2008). The second issue identified was use of game involvement index versus game performance index (Memmert & Harvey, 2008). The third concern was observer reliability and fourth was Linear unequalness(Memmert & Harvey, 2008). Finally Memmert and Harvey (2008) identified a concern in determining the usefulness of action. Memmert and Harvey (2008) provided explanations for these concerns and furthermore developed solutions for these problems (these can be accessed via the URL provided). The concerns are valid and should be researched further in order to create a more effective assessment method
How are they used to assess students?
TSAP and GPAI are both forms of authentic assessment. Authentic assessment has been defined as consisting of two specific attributes which include ecological validity- Authentic assessment requires students to demonstrate relevant competencies through a significant, meaningful and worthwhile accomplishment for example learning and assessing a skill inside a game setting rather than in isolation, and students as active participants for example self assessment and peer assessment (Butler & Griffin, 2010).
Both assessment instruments allow educators or peers to assess technical skill and tactical awareness and by using these within a TGFU approach this meets the attributes which make up authentic assessment. These assessment procedures encourage active participation of students in the assessment process. GPAI allows students to observe their peers using individual or multiple components of game play (as seen in table 1) in order to determine students game performance index using calculations which can be examined further in table 2.
TSAP allows students to observe game components (can be observed in figure 1) in order to determine students performance score using TSAP calculations as shown in table 3 and figure 2.
Table 2: Formulas for calculating GPAI outcome variables from (Griffin & Butler, 2005, p.132)
Table 3 Formulas for calculating TSAP outcome variables (Griffin & Butler, 2005)
Figure 2 Nonogram using (EI,VP, and PS) from (Grehaigne, Godbout, & Bouthier, 1997)
Butler, J., & Griffin, L. (2010). More Teaching Games for Understanding Moving Globally. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Butler, J., Griffin, L., Lombardo, B., & Nastasi, R. (2003). Teaching Games for Understanding in Physical Education and Sport: An International Perspective. Oxen Hill, MD: National Association for Sport and Physical Education.
Fried, S., & Maxwell, T. (2009). Development of an Instrument to Measure Game Performance in Female Minor Ice Hockey Players. In T. Hopper, J. Butler, & B. Storey, TGFU... Simply Good Pedagogy: Understanding a Complex Challenge (pp. 159-171). Physical and Health Educaton Canada.
Grehaigne, J. F., Richard, J. F., & Griffin, L. (2005). Teaching and learning team sports and games. New York: RoutledgeFalmer.
Grehaigne, J., Godbout, P., & Bouthier, D. (1997). Performance assessment in team sports. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 16(4), 500-516.
Griffin, L., & Butler, J. (2005). Teaching Games For Understanding Theory, Research, and Practice. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Hopper, T. (2003). 'Four Rs for tactical awareness: applying game performance assessment in net/wall games'. Teaching Elementary Physical Education, 14(2), 16-21. Retrieved from http://flex.flinders.edu.au/file/c83a9c30-7241-4112-86bc-520d7131e7de/1/Four%20Rs%20for%20tactical%20awareness.pdf
Memmert, D., & Harvey, S. (2008). The Game Performance Assessment Instrument (GPAI): Some Concerns and Solutions for Further Development. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 27, 220-240. Retrieved from http://www.fmh.utl.pt/agon/cpfmh/docs/documentos/aulas/267/Memmert_Harvey_2008.pdf
Memmert, D., & Harvey, S. (2008). The Game Performance Assessment Instrument (GPAI): Some Concerns and Solutions for Further Development. Journal of Teaching and Physical Activity, 27, 220-240. Retrieved from http://www.fmh.utl.pt/agon/cpfmh/docs/documentos/aulas/267/Memmert_Harvey_2008.pdf
Mitchell, S., Griffin, L., & Oslin, J. (1994). Tactical awareness as a developmentally appropriate focus for the teaching of games in elementary and secondary physical education. Physical Educator, 51(1), 21-28. Retrieved from http://catalogue.flinders.edu.au.ezproxy.flinders.edu.au/reserve/111/m/MEDICAL20110719152943.pdf
Mitchell, S., Oslin, J., & Griffin, L. (2006). Teaching sport concepts and skills : a tactical games approach. Champaign, Illonois: Human Kinetics.
Mitchell, S., Oslin, J., & Griffin, L. (2013). Teaching Sport Concepts and Skills: A Tactical Games Approach for Ages 7 to 18 (3rd ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Nadeau, L., Richard, J., & Godbout, J. (2008). The validity and reliability of a performance assessment procedure in ice hockey. Physical Education and Sport Pedagogy, 13(1), 65-83. doi:10.1080/17408980701444718
Pill, S. (2008). Involving students in the assessment of game performance in physical education. 'Play to Educate' Sport in Education Conference, (pp. 1-13). Adelaide. Retrieved from http://caef.flinders.edu.au/assets/files/Shane_Pill_Game_Assessment.pdf
Richard, J., Godbout, B., & Grehaigne, J. (2000). Students Precision and Interobserver Reliability of Performance Assessment in Team Sports. Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, 71(1), 85-91.
Richard, J., Godbout, P., Tousignant, M., & Grehaigne, J. (1999). The Try-Out of a Team Performance Assessment Procedure in Elementary and Juniour High School Physical Education Classes. Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 18, 336-356.
Thorpe, R., Bunker, D., & Almond, L. (1986). Rethinking Games Teaching. Retrieved from http://www.tgfu.org/articles/PHED%20RETHINKING%20GAMES.pdf