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Grammar Chapter 12: The Parts of Speech
Transcript of Grammar Chapter 12: The Parts of Speech
Why do we study grammar?
Grammar is the building block of language--without it, we wouldn't be able to write, read, or speak.
Grammar defines the English language.
Grammar is logic behind words. The numbers to the formula of language.
The Noun and Pronoun
a word used to name a person, place, thing, or idea.
Persons-Rainsford, Buddy, General Zaroff, hair stylist, swimmers
Places-Iowa, Mars, classroom, library
Things-leaf, cartoon, rocket, merry-go-round
Ideas-peace, excellence, joy, honesty, equality
vs. Common Nouns
Proper Nouns name a particular person, place, or thing,
and is always capitalized.
Proper Noun: Common Noun:
Madame Curie female
Grand Rapids Children's Museum building
Concrete and Abstract Nouns
Concrete Nouns- name an object that can be perceived by the senses:
cloud, thunder, rose, apple
Abstract Nouns- name an idea, a quality, or a characteristic:
freedom, joy, beauty, kindness
when two or more words are used together to form a single noun.
volleyball, newsstand, news room, cold front,
words used in place of a noun(s)
Pronouns are used to refer back to a noun after it has already been previously stated.
Gloria stepped back from the picture and looked at
Where is Sarah?
would be here on time.
Personal Pronouns - refer to nouns that show person.
First person pronouns refer to the person speaking:
I, my, mine, me we, our, ours, us
Second person pronouns refer to the person being spoken to
you, your, yours you, your, yours
Third person pronouns refer to some other person or thing being
he, his, him, she, they, their, theirs, them
her, hers, it, its
the -self and -selves forms of personal pronouns
himself, herself, itself,
used to introduce adjective clauses
who, whom, whose, which, that
used in questions
Who....? Whose...? What...?
Circle all of the nouns. Put a P above the proper nouns.
Christmas Eve afternoon we scrape together a nickel and go to the butchers to buy Queenie's traditional gift, a good gnawable beef bone.
The Adjective, Verb and Adverb
modifies a noun or a pronoun.
describes the noun or makes its meaning more clear.
An adjective answers one of these questions: What kind? Which one? How many?
What Kind: Which One? How Many?
old shoes next day many rivers
clever dog either way fewer hours
low price last chance some problems
Pronoun or Adjective?
Notice that in the phrases above,
that, either, many, fewer, and some
--words that may also be used as pronouns--are adjectives because they modify the nouns in the phrases rather than take the place of the nouns.
Nouns used as Adjectives
Sometimes nouns are used as adjectives.
Nouns used as Adjectives:
the most frequently used adjectives
- refer to one of a group---A an
A girl won.
An elephant escaped.
This is an honor.
- indicate that the noun refers to something or
someone in particular--The
The girl won.
The elephant escaped.
The honor goes to her.
A sentence is not complete without a verb.
A verb allows the noun or pronoun to act in someway or says something about it.
Some verbs express action and some tell something about the subject.
In this sentence, correct it using what you know about pronouns.
Her and me are researching the peace corps which was established in 1961 by president Kennedy to see how it has changed since their early days.
Verbs that express an action. Sometimes action verbs express an action that can't be seen.
do, come, go, write, think, believe, remember, understand
Transitive Action Verb-
when the action it expresses is directed toward a person or thing named in the sentence.
Neil rang the bell.
--The action verb is rang which is directed toward the bell.
Tina mailed the package.
--The action verb is mailed which is directed toward the package.
Intransitive Action Verb-
a verb that expresses action without reference to an object.
Last Saturday we stayed inside.
The children laughed.
Verbs that are a link between two words.
Verbs often make up more than one word in the sentence.
Any form of the word be or verb ending in be or been are linking verbs.
be, being, am, is, are, was, were,
shall be, will be, has been, have been, had been, shall have been, will have been,
should be, would be
Other common linking verbs:
appear grow seem stay
become look smell taste feel remain sound turn
Linking verbs may also be used as
all of the forms
be, has, have, had, shall, will, can, may, should, would, could, might, must, do, did, does
Helping verbs work together with main verbs as a pair.
a group of related verbs
Sometimes the helping verb and main verb get separated, especially in questions.
of her future.
She should not have borrowed the car.
Did you hear the President's speech?
A word used to modify or describe a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.
Adverbs answer the questions Where? When? How? How long? or How much?
. May we go
agreed. I am
Drive carefully. He hardly moved.
Adverbs modifying Adjectives
Beth did an
The car had a
The following adverbs frequently modify adjectives:
Adverbs modifying other adverbs
Underline the verb in each sentence:
Carl Lewis won four Olympics gold medals.
Robert taught at the University of Michigan.
Even good friends sometimes disagree.
Fill in the blanks with an appropriate linking verb. There is more than 1 right answer:
That building_____the new
Let's hope the evening____cool.
Underline the verbs and verb phrases in the following sentences:
Mr. Jensen always sweeps the floor first.
Then he washes the chalkboards.
The weather forecaster had confidently predicted rain.
Fill in the blank with an appropriate adverb:
Our neighbors ___say much, but they're ___always there when we need them.
Write the adverb which modifies the adjective in the following sentence:
Plato wrote a most interesting book.
Write the adverb that modifies another adverb in the following sentence:
The cat leaped to the windowsill quite quickly.
Preposition, Conjunction and Interjection
A word that shows the relationship of a noun or a pronoun
to another word in the sentence.
Prepositions are important because they effect the meaning in sentences.
The dog slept
The dog slept
The dog slept
the beach was wonderful.
the beach was wonderful.
the beach was wonderful.
Refer to page 368 for a full list*
about between into upon
above beyond near with
across down of within
after during off without
before except past
behind from since
below in through
beside inside underneath
To distinguish between an adverb and a preposition, ask whether the word relates a noun or pronoun following it OR to a word that comes before it.
our boat (preposition)
in addition to
in front of
an account of
Join words or groups of related words.
There are two kinds of conjunctions--coordinating and correlative
Join single words OR groups of words.
and but or nor for yet so
Judy wrote the number down,
she lost it.
Always used when connecting pairs of words or phrases.
both...and not only...but also either...or neither...nor whether...or
Roberto Clemente were outstanding athletes.
we will buy it now,
we will wait for the next sale.
An exclamatory word that expresses emotion.
Ugh! Wonderful! Hey!
it wasn't anything
I guess that's that.
Fill in the blank with an appropriate preposition.
Lobsters, the delight of many diners, are large shellfish that ___ the sea.
Farmers also use pieces of lobster as fertilizer ___ their gardens.
Name the conjunctions in the following sentences. Are they coordinating or correlative?
Neither my mother nor I was enthusiastic, but my father wanted to ride the roller coaster.
I wanted to go to the game, but my mother said I had to finish my homework first.
Step One: With a partner, complete the chart in your Grammar Notes Section.
Step Two: Complete the Identifying Parts of Speech Exercise. Keep in your Grammar Notes Section.
You have 20 minutes. Go!
The Parts of Speech
used to point out a specific person or thing
this, that, these, those
not referring to a definite person or thing
all anything everyone most another both everything much any each few neither anybody either many nobody anyone everybody
prepositions composed of two or more words
in spite of
by means of