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Grammar Chapter 12: The Parts of Speech

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Emily Hoffman

on 16 September 2013

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Transcript of Grammar Chapter 12: The Parts of Speech

Chapter 12: The Parts of Speech
Grammar
Why do we study grammar?
Grammar is the building block of language--without it, we wouldn't be able to write, read, or speak.

Grammar defines the English language.

Grammar is logic behind words. The numbers to the formula of language.
The Noun and Pronoun
Noun
Pronoun
a word used to name a person, place, thing, or idea.

Persons-Rainsford, Buddy, General Zaroff, hair stylist, swimmers
Places-Iowa, Mars, classroom, library
Things-leaf, cartoon, rocket, merry-go-round
Ideas-peace, excellence, joy, honesty, equality

Proper Nouns
vs. Common Nouns
Proper Nouns name a particular person, place, or thing,
and is always capitalized.

Proper Noun: Common Noun:
Madame Curie female
Paris city
Grand Rapids Children's Museum building
Monday day
September month
Concrete and Abstract Nouns
Concrete Nouns- name an object that can be perceived by the senses:
cloud, thunder, rose, apple


Abstract Nouns- name an idea, a quality, or a characteristic:
freedom, joy, beauty, kindness

Compound Nouns
Compound Nouns-
when two or more words are used together to form a single noun.


volleyball, newsstand, news room, cold front,
sister-in-law, push-up

words used in place of a noun(s)

Pronouns are used to refer back to a noun after it has already been previously stated.

Gloria stepped back from the picture and looked at
it
carefully.

Where is Sarah?
She
said
she
would be here on time.
Personal Pronouns
Personal Pronouns - refer to nouns that show person.

First person pronouns refer to the person speaking:
Singular Plural
I, my, mine, me we, our, ours, us

Second person pronouns refer to the person being spoken to
Singular Plural
you, your, yours you, your, yours

Third person pronouns refer to some other person or thing being
spoken about:
Singular Plural
he, his, him, she, they, their, theirs, them
her, hers, it, its
Other Commonly
Used Pronouns
Reflexive Pronouns-
the -self and -selves forms of personal pronouns


myself, ourselves,
yourself, yourselves,
himself, herself, itself,
themselves

Relative Pronouns-
used to introduce adjective clauses


who, whom, whose, which, that

Interrogative Pronouns-
used in questions


Who....? Whose...? What...?
Whom...? Which....?

Grammar Drill
Circle all of the nouns. Put a P above the proper nouns.
Christmas Eve afternoon we scrape together a nickel and go to the butchers to buy Queenie's traditional gift, a good gnawable beef bone.
The Adjective, Verb and Adverb
Adjective
Verb
Adverb
modifies a noun or a pronoun.

describes the noun or makes its meaning more clear.

An adjective answers one of these questions: What kind? Which one? How many?

What Kind: Which One? How Many?
gray
sky
that
girl
five
fingers
old shoes next day many rivers
clever dog either way fewer hours
low price last chance some problems
Pronoun or Adjective?
Notice that in the phrases above,
that, either, many, fewer, and some
--words that may also be used as pronouns--are adjectives because they modify the nouns in the phrases rather than take the place of the nouns.
Nouns used as Adjectives
Sometimes nouns are used as adjectives.

Nouns:
Nouns used as Adjectives:
crisp bacon
bacon
sandwich
blinding snow
snow sculpture
last December
December sale
Articles
the most frequently used adjectives
a, an,
and
the.

Indefinite articles
- refer to one of a group---A an


A girl won.
An elephant escaped.
This is an honor.

Definite article
- indicate that the noun refers to something or
someone in particular--The


The girl won.
The elephant escaped.
The honor goes to her.
A sentence is not complete without a verb.

A verb allows the noun or pronoun to act in someway or says something about it.

Some verbs express action and some tell something about the subject.
Action Verb
Linking Verb
Helping Verbs
In this sentence, correct it using what you know about pronouns.

Her and me are researching the peace corps which was established in 1961 by president Kennedy to see how it has changed since their early days.
Verbs that express an action. Sometimes action verbs express an action that can't be seen.
do, come, go, write, think, believe, remember, understand
Transitive Action Verb-
when the action it expresses is directed toward a person or thing named in the sentence.
Neil rang the bell.
--The action verb is rang which is directed toward the bell.
Tina mailed the package.
--The action verb is mailed which is directed toward the package.
Intransitive Action Verb-
a verb that expresses action without reference to an object.
Last Saturday we stayed inside.
The children laughed.
Verbs that are a link between two words.

Verbs often make up more than one word in the sentence.

Any form of the word be or verb ending in be or been are linking verbs.
be, being, am, is, are, was, were,
shall be, will be, has been, have been, had been, shall have been, will have been,
should be, would be

Other common linking verbs:
appear grow seem stay
become look smell taste feel remain sound turn
Linking verbs may also be used as
helping verbs


all of the forms
be, has, have, had, shall, will, can, may, should, would, could, might, must, do, did, does
Helping verbs work together with main verbs as a pair.
is
leaving
may
become
should
move
might have
remained
does
sing
must have
thought
Verb Phrases
a group of related verbs

Sometimes the helping verb and main verb get separated, especially in questions.

She

had

always

been thinking

of her future.

She should not have borrowed the car.

Did you hear the President's speech?
Let's Practice!
A word used to modify or describe a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.


Adverbs answer the questions Where? When? How? How long? or How much?

We lived
there
. May we go
tomorrow
?
She
quickly
agreed. I am
completely
happy.
Drive carefully. He hardly moved.
Adverbs modifying Adjectives
Beth did an
exceptionally
fine job.

The car had a
slightly
damaged fender.

The following adverbs frequently modify adjectives:
extremely entirely
dangerously completely
quite especially
Adverbs modifying other adverbs
Calvin was
almost
never late.

She slept
too
late.
Underline the verb in each sentence:
Carl Lewis won four Olympics gold medals.

Robert taught at the University of Michigan.

Even good friends sometimes disagree.

Fill in the blanks with an appropriate linking verb. There is more than 1 right answer:
That building_____the new
public library.

The moose_____huge.

Let's hope the evening____cool.

Underline the verbs and verb phrases in the following sentences:
Mr. Jensen always sweeps the floor first.
Then he washes the chalkboards.
The weather forecaster had confidently predicted rain.
Fill in the blank with an appropriate adverb:
Our neighbors ___say much, but they're ___always there when we need them.

Write the adverb which modifies the adjective in the following sentence:
Plato wrote a most interesting book.

Write the adverb that modifies another adverb in the following sentence:
The cat leaped to the windowsill quite quickly.
Preposition
Preposition, Conjunction and Interjection
Conjunction
Interjection
A word that shows the relationship of a noun or a pronoun
to another word in the sentence.

Prepositions are important because they effect the meaning in sentences.
The dog slept
near
my bed.
The dog slept
under
my bed.
The dog slept
in
my bed.

Everything
about
the beach was wonderful.
Everything
except
the beach was wonderful.
Everything
from
the beach was wonderful.
Common Prepositions
Refer to page 368 for a full list*
about between into upon
above beyond near with
across down of within
after during off without
before except past
behind from since
below in through
beside inside underneath
Adverb Vs.
Preposition
To distinguish between an adverb and a preposition, ask whether the word relates a noun or pronoun following it OR to a word that comes before it.

Welcome
aboard.
(adverb)
Welcome
aboard
our boat (preposition)
Compound Prepositions
according to
in addition to
next to
as of
in front of
an account of

Join words or groups of related words.

There are two kinds of conjunctions--coordinating and correlative
Coordinating Conjunctions
Join single words OR groups of words.


and but or nor for yet so

guards
and
forwards
on land
or
at sea
Judy wrote the number down,
but
she lost it.
Correlative
Conjunctions
Always used when connecting pairs of words or phrases.

both...and not only...but also either...or neither...nor whether...or

Both
Jim Thorpe
and
Roberto Clemente were outstanding athletes.

Either
we will buy it now,
or
we will wait for the next sale.
An exclamatory word that expresses emotion.

Ugh! Wonderful! Hey!
Aw,
it wasn't anything
Well,
I guess that's that.
Fill in the blank with an appropriate preposition.

Lobsters, the delight of many diners, are large shellfish that ___ the sea.

Farmers also use pieces of lobster as fertilizer ___ their gardens.

Name the conjunctions in the following sentences. Are they coordinating or correlative?

Neither my mother nor I was enthusiastic, but my father wanted to ride the roller coaster.

I wanted to go to the game, but my mother said I had to finish my homework first.
Step One: With a partner, complete the chart in your Grammar Notes Section.

Step Two: Complete the Identifying Parts of Speech Exercise. Keep in your Grammar Notes Section.

You have 20 minutes. Go!
Summary of
The Parts of Speech

Demonstrative Pronouns-
used to point out a specific person or thing


this, that, these, those

Indefinite Pronouns-
not referring to a definite person or thing


all anything everyone most another both everything much any each few neither anybody either many nobody anyone everybody
more none
prepositions composed of two or more words
because of
in spite of
by means of
instead of
prior to
Full transcript