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Transcript of Developmental Psychology
study of how people continue to develop from infancy through old age.
Quick Review of Biology
Only animal primates that smile at their parents.
Albert Einstein, Charles Darwin, Isaac Newton were all premature!
Some scientists suggest that shaking the head to mean “no” derives from newborns turning their head away from food when they are full.
In the United States, more babies are born on Wednesday than on other days of the week. Sunday is the slowest day.
The number of babies born to single women is at record levels. In 2010, there were 9.8 million single moms living with children under 18 in the U.S., up from 3.4 million in 1970.
During the nine months between conception and birth, a baby’s weight increases by 3,000 million times. Between birth and the end of its second year, an infant will have quadrupled in size.
The brain of a newborn accounts for 10% of its total body weight. In adults this figure is down to 2%. By the end of the first year, an infant’s brain increases in size two and half times, and by the end of the fifth year, it is three times what it was at birth. At all stages, the male brain is slightly larger than that of the female.
At around 6 months old, a baby learns that each object is unique. Before this time, whenever it sees a bird in a tree, it always assumes it was the same bird
Brain scans reveal that male babies have more asymmetrical brain hemispheres than female babies, and that female brains tend to have greater symmetry in the part of the brain concerned with complex mental processes. Female babies have more gray matter in the newer parts of the cerebral cortex, while male babies have proportionately more gray matter in the older, more primitive parts of the brain. Male brains are also significantly larger on the left.
Newborns prefer the cadence of their native language at birth, suggesting that some language learning starts in utero. Research suggests that babies may even cry with the intonations of their mother tongue.
Historians of the 18th century estimate that an infant was four times more likely to be a victim of homicide than anyone else.l
In Europe, milk was not pasteurized until the 1890s and was avoided, particularly for infants, because people believed their child would grow up to resemble the animal.
Until the 19th century, babies were not considered to have personalities and, therefore, were not in need of the physical and psychological nurturing advised today.
In Europe and America in the 18th century, it was tradition to wash a newborn and then scour it with salt. It would be purged of meconium with emetic syrup, oil of almonds, castor oil, or anything else the midwife had, including wine and whiskey.
Babies typically prefer a female voice over a male voice, which may explain why people raise the pitch of their voice when talking to babies, otherwise known as “motherese.”
In the late 19th century, it was medically accepted in Europe and America that “infants who persisted in the habit of sucking always become masturbators.” Not only were pacifiers considered unhealthy, parents were instructed to tie their children’s hands to their cribs or to stuff their hands inside aluminum mittens.
To many Victorians, the sight of crawling infants reminded them of their ape-like origins, and they forced their children to learn to walk early with the aid of cages and walkers
Children don’t remember much before the age of 3, due to what psychologists call “infantile amnesia.” Neuroscientists believe that early experiences never make it into long-term memory banks because the brain’s recording machinery isn’t functional yet or because memory is tied to language acquisition
Fun Fact about Infants
The infant and vision:
Know the experiment by Spencer and Quinn
Novel visual stimulus and habituation: What holds our interest? Where do we look first?
Newborns follow voices
Turn heads towards mothers
Focus on Faces until mobile
The baby's nose
Brain Development in Infancy:
Long PPT. but some good stuff
The importance of Play
Questions to focus on during TED talk:
How does play link to the development of motor skills?
How does play link with social development?
Are we genetically predisposed to play?
Do we play enough? In school? Work? At Home?
Do parents focus enough on play?
How do you think play links to memory? Brain development? Creative thinking? Emotional development?
Can you 'play' on a video game?
The opposite of play is.....
Jean Piaget: Cognitive Theory
Piaget was the first psychologist to make a systematic study of cognitive development.
According to Piaget, children are born with a very basic mental structure (genetically inherited and evolved) on which all subsequent learning and knowledge is based.
Children construct an understanding of the world around them, then experience discrepancies between what they already know and what they discover in their environment.
Stages of development
Piaget's Process of Learning
a way of organizing knowledge. Indeed, it is useful to think of schemas as “units” of knowledge, each relating to one aspect of the world, including objects, actions and abstract (i.e. theoretical) concepts.
Equilibrium is reached
(equilibrium, assimilation and accommodation)
– Interpret information in term
– This happens when the existing schema (knowledge) does not work, and needs to be changed to deal with a new object or situation.
– This is the force, which moves development along. Piaget believed that cognitive development did not progress at a steady rate, but rather in leaps and bounds. Equilibrium is occurs when a child's schemas can deal with most new information through assimilation. However, an unpleasant state of disequilibrium occurs when new information cannot be fitted into existing schemas (assimilation).
Equilibration is the force which drives the learning process as we do not like to be frustrated and will seek to restore balance by mastering the new challenge (accommodation). Once the new information is acquired the process of assimilation with the new schema will continue until the next time we need to make an adjustment to it.
Rapid Cognitive Growth
Learn through trial and error
Rely on reflexes and senses to navigate the world
Then modify behaviors to adapt to the world
Object permanence means knowing that an object still exists, even if it is hidden. It requires the ability to form a mental representation (i.e. a schema) of the object. For example, if you place a toy under a blanket, the child who has achieved object permanence knows it is there and can actively seek it. Before this stage, the child behaves as if the toy had simply disappeared. The attainment of object permanence generally signals the transition to the next stage.
Thoughts are egocentric
Animism: Toys come alive
Children in the preoperational stage are able to focus on only one aspect or dimension of problems
Egocentric and Conservation
Conservation is the understanding that something stays the same in quantity even though its appearance changes. To be more technical, conservation is the ability to understand that redistributing material does not affect its mass, number or volume.
Logical and Rational Thought
Learn conservation, volume and orientation
More organized and rational thought
Conservation of both numbers and liquids
Manipulate thoughts inside your head
You can do mathematical calculations, think creatively, use abstract reasoning, and imagine the outcome of particular actions.
Systematic approach to thinking and a task
Think things abstractly then draw conclusions
without needing to physically experience it.
Third - Eye Problem: If you had an extra eye, where would you put it?
Autism as a Socratic Seminar?
Test your AQ:
Reflect on your scores? Good or bad?
Importance of attachment
The importance of...Dad
Attachment as a Socratic Seminar?
Parental neglect, broken family and daycare's effect on the modern child?
Sense of self:
Self-concept - understanding who you are
Self-awareness - recognition in a mirror and continues throughout development and discovery of your strengths and weaknesses.
Parenting Styles as a Socratic Seminar?
Role of Culture
If you would like more biology - the Life's Greatest Miracle by PBS
Brain is still immature so we feel things differently (no synapses yet to process sensation
reflexes develop first
Touch develops around 12 - 15 weeks
15-weeks: grasp, frown, squint and grimace, suck thumb and swallow
Taste and smell form around 20 weeks
Sound around 24 weeks
25 weeks - can survive if premature
Awareness around 32 weeks - we start to sleep
Daily routine around 35 weeks
Are these simple categories that are outdated?
Are we really different?
emotional differences? - in outward behavior
mental health differences
depression, anxiety, anorexia
suicide, alcoholism, autism, ADD, ADHD
Why are men more aggressive?
Does that link to social power?
Gilligan and social connectedness:
Are men more individualist in the Western Society?
Are women more relationship oriented?
Is there a male-answer syndrome?
Do women 'tend and befriend'?
The interplay of biology and socialization
Role of Chromosomes
Role of hormones
What is the role of culture?
Gender and Child Rearing
THE BIOPSYCHOSOCIAL VIEW
Guys act like guys whether they are elephants v. elephant seals or rural peasant v. ceo executives
Genes are activate after 7 weeks.
X and Y
testosterone and estrogen
Differences in the biology of the brain?
use your brains...
socially constructed gender roles
gender roles - predefined expectations linked to social position
What happens to both genders when they deviate from assigned expectations?
Gender Identity and Gender Typing
Social Learning Theory: learn through observations, imitation and rewards/punishments
Life Long Process
The role of an enriched environment
The role of parents - do they matter?
Are parents and peers complementary?
Neighborhoods matter - if so why to we ignore this?
School matter - why do we ignore this?
Adolescence: A creation of the 20th Century?
primary and secondary sex characteristics
PBS FRONTLINE: The teenage brain
Stages of Moral Development
Heinz Steals the Drug
In Europe, a woman was near death from a special kind of cancer. There was one drug that the doctors thought might save her. It was a form of radium that a druggist in the same town had recently discovered. The drug was expensive to make, but the druggist was charging ten times what the drug cost him to make. He paid $200 for the radium and charged $2,000 for a small dose of the drug. The sick woman's husband, Heinz, went to everyone he knew to borrow the money, but he could only get together about $ 1,000 which is half of what it cost. He told the druggist that his wife was dying and asked him to sell it cheaper or let him pay later. But the druggist said: "No, I discovered the drug and I'm going to make money from it." So Heinz got desperate and broke into the man's store to steal the drug-for his wife. Should the husband have done that? (Kohlberg, 1963, p. 19)
Kolhberg did not care about a yes or no question.
Looking for the reasoning behind the solution to the dilemma.
Did work off of Piaget's work on cognitive development - just thought there was more to thinking than just thinking.
Develop our moral reasoning in stages
6 stages of Moral Development
Go back to your answers on the dilemma - where are you in the moral development spectrum?
Obedience and Punishment
Good Interpersonal Relationships
Maintaining the Social Order
Powerful authorities hand down a set of rules
Children do not speak as members of society
Solely concerned with avoiding punishment
Punishment determines wrongness. If you get punished then it is wrong.
Realizes different viewpoints
Everything is relative
Individuals should pursue their own interests
Punishment does not mean wrongness but just a consequence you want to avoid.
Speak and rationalize as isolated individuals in society.
Morals as simple 'deals'
Good morals means good intentions and feelings (love, empathy, trust, etc.)
All about your motivation or intent when doing wrong. If the outcome is moral then it may be moral to do something immoral.
More concerned with society as a whole
Obey authority out of respect instead of fear
Emphasis on performing ones duties to be a part of society
Chaos is undesirable and the number one reason for laws - to keep order
Have become a full fledged member of society
Stage 1 and 4 are the same in answer usually but teens in stage four can offer reasons why laws are created and why laws are necessary (and good).
Social Contract and Individual Rights
Keep society functioning
What makes a good society?
Stepping back and analyzing society - what would be the BEST society?
Social contract - freely enter into a contract with society and participate
Rights and morals may take precedent over laws.
Dependent more on the group than the next stage (believe in right to life because of the group, believe in stealing as wrong because of the group)
Individual rights and the democratic process prevails
This is where we (in US) achieve true JUSTICE
Treat the claims of all parties with impartiality
Respect basic dignity of all people
Rights of the minority are more important than the democratic process
Civil Disobedience: Truly distinguishes this stage (King, Ghandi)
Post Conventional Morality
Gender Identity: Self-identify and seek role models of the same gender.
moral feeling precede moral reasoning?
moral reasoning aims to convince ourselves and others of what we intuitively feel. Is there such a thing - intuitive feelings?
Are we hard wired for moral reasoning?
Why do our action counter our feelings (most of the time)?
Life long process
Unit #9 Developmental Psychology
Rats living in enriched environments developed thicker, heavier brains.
The Theory of the Mind:
People's idea about the own and others' mental states - about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts, and the behaviors these might predict.
Empathy, thinking of others, different perspectives, creative thinking - all present in preoperational stage.
Renner and Rosenzweig
The pruning process: we have the cognitive ability to do anything but our environment prunes our talents to focus on specialties - then we may lose that ability permanently.
unused pathways weaken - puberty hits and they are gone!
Blind people who have restored vision never fully develop a normal perception of the world.
success of a child depends on a close-knit, supportive and even demanding family
Yes and No - most important is to love the ones you got!
Autism is associated with an impaired theory of the mind
Men over 40 who father a child are more likely to produce an autistic child
Autistic children have trouble recognizing facial expressions.
Asperger is characterized by normal intelligence but exceptional skills in one area and difficult with social and communication skills.
Autism research indicates that autistic children and adults have less mirror neuron activity in the brain.
FACTS ON AUTISM
Adolescence: Starts with the completion of puberty and ends with social independence.
Storm and stress
Biology of the brain is not complete:
myelin: fatty tissue that speeds
neuron transmitters - enables better
communication and judgement.
limbic system is immature - explains risky behaviors.
Identity: Who am I?
Group Identity/Social Identity: who do others think I am? Who do they EXPECT me to be?
Crystallized Intelligence v. Fluid Intelligence
Groups of 4: Each group use your book to look at Piaget's
Different Stages of Development