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Petroleum

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Kate Rappard

on 27 October 2013

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Transcript of Petroleum

Petroleum
History
The Science Behind Petroleum
Consumption/Production Rates in the U.S.
on average, the U.S. uses 20.5-21 million barrels of petroleum a day
2010- 7.0 billion barrels of petroleum used
2011- 6.87 billion barrels of petroleum used
The U.S. has the highest consumption rate of petroleum (22% in the world in 2011).
Produced 207, 740, 000 barrels of petroleum (2009)
U.S. produces around even amounts of natural gas and petroleum, totaling to be almost 25 million barrels a day
Global Production and Use
SoCal Production and Use
How does Petroleum Affect the Environment?
Petroleum products give off carbon-dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and other various byproducts.
These byproducts have negative affects on the environment, such as contributing to global warming, acid rain, and ground-level ozone.
Oil spills damage animals and the environments they live in.
Fuel Mass to Energy Output
Gallon of Gas: 1.3 x 10^8 J
Barrel (42 Gallons) of Crude Oil: 6.1 x 10^9 J
1 lb of Gasoline: 2.2 x 10^7 J
1 lb of Crude Oil:2.4 x 10^7 J
Turning Energy into Electricity
Crude oil is extracted and pumped from the underground through wells at drilling sites
Crude oil is transported to a refinery where is is separated into useable petroleum products
Petroleum is transported to a power plant by ship, pipelines, or trucks where it generates electricity from the oil.
Although most oil is used for transportation or home heating, it can also be used for electricity (ex- 8% of oil is used for electricity in NY).
"Conventional Steam"- Oil is burned in boilers to produce steam and thus generates electricity
"Combustion Turbine"- Oil is burned in combustion turbines which also runs electricity (this is the more common technique to generate electricity)
"Combined Cycle"- Oil is burned in the combustion turbine and the exhaust gasses are used to run a boiler and "drive" a steam turbine (this is efficient because it generates more electricity by more machines through one fuel source)
Shortcomings of Petroleum
Non-renewable energy source
Expensive
Damages the environment through oil spills and pollution (emits 20 pounds of CO2 per 1 gallon of gas)
U.S. consumes about 20.5-21 million barrels of gas a day
Negatively impacts the environment through air/water/land pollution, exposure of toxic and hazardous materials to all living things, and reducing wildlife habitats.
"Tough Oil" that energy firms want is hard to get because it needs highly specialized equipment because it's in forbidden locations.
~3 million years ago, oil reserves seep to the surface and form pools of bitumen (tar)
Thousands of years ago, prehistoric people used bitumen to make oil lamps and seal boats in a process called caulking.
Ancient Egyptians used bitumen to preserve mummies
Oil discovered during European settlement of the Americas
In 1847, the world's first oil well was drilled in Baku (by the Caspian Sea) known as the Black City. It produced 90% of the world's oil at the time.
Edwin L. Drake drills the U.S.'s first oil well in 1859 in PA.
In 1896, Henry Ford builds an automobile that runs on pure ethanol.
From the 1950's to today, oil is our most used energy source because of cars.
Politics
high oil prices threaten our recovering economy
Rep. Rob Bishop and Sen. David Vitter plan to expand offshore drilling and have the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) agree to oil exploration
Democrats and the EPA argue that new oil drilling won't help the oil supply for a number of years. They argue that nothing can be done to lessen gas prices.
U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve- created in 1973-74 due to an oil embargo and oil shortage. It now has 695.9 million barrels of crude oil and is the worlds' largest gov. owned stockpile of oil.
BP Oil Spill- oil drilling platform "deepwater Horizon" exploded in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010 due to pressurized gasses. It devastated the environment and economy. Because of this, Obama temporarily prohibited building new deepwater wells.
CA ranked third (2009) in the U.S. in oil producing states
In 2004, CA produced about 731, 150 barrels of petroleum a day (a decline of 4.7% compared to 2003 production)
CA produces 37.2% of the petroleum it uses
CA imports the other 63% from Alaska or foreign refineries
CA Oil Refineries produce 45 million gallons of gasoline
Petroleum accounts for 96% of CA's transportation needs
first, you must boil the oil in a column. It separates into different liquids and gasses and is distilled. The Liquids are used to make petrol, diesel, etc.
The gases rise to the top of the column (cooler ones on the bottom). They cool and condense back into liquids, where the process is repeated.
In the distillation column, the oil is separated into different raw fractions: the heavy residual oil (at the bottom), the raw diesel fuel (at the middle), and the raw gasoline (at the top).
More gasoline is produced through cracking, reforming, and isomerization.
Cracking- breaking down large petroleum molecules especially from heavy residual oil heating
Reforming- transforming the structure of oil molecules through heating and applying pressure
Isomerization- rearranging the atoms of a molecule to create a product that is chemically similar to usable oil, but structurally different
Why is Petroleum Effective?
No new technology is required to use it
easy to transport
easy to use (gas stations)
high fuel mass to energy output
moves vehicles faster/longer compared to other energy sources
used to make many other common items used in our society today
Although it is non-renewable, it is still abundant in nature
DID YOU KNOW...
that crude oil does not come from dinosaurs?
It's actually the remains of marine micro-organisms!

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About 100 countries produce crude oil in the world- these are the top 5 (2012):
13%- Saudi Arabia
12%- Russia
12%- United States
5%- China
4%- Canada
Daily global consumption of gasoline reached 88.9 million barrels (2012)
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Works Cited
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