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Gestational Diabetes

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on 10 September 2013

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Transcript of Gestational Diabetes

Gestational Diabetes
Gestational Diabetes
Gestational diabetes is a type of glucose intolerance where the first symptoms first present themselves in pregnancy.
(Whitelaw & Gayle, 2011)

Jade McWaters
Kate White
Amanda White

Between 1998 and 2013 there were 24, 392 cases of gestational diabetes
Average age of patient with gestational diabetes was 33 years old
It affects 3-8% of all pregnancies
Accounts for 90% of all diabetes in pregnancy (Moore, 2013)
Almost half of these women who suffer from gestational diabetes will develop type 2 diabetes after giving birth

Risk Factors
Multiple pregnancies
Previous history of GDM
Family history of diabetes
Maternal age
Previous Macrosomic Pregnancy
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
Twin Pregnancy
Signs and Symptoms
Some women are asymptomatic.
Some women suffer from excessive thirst, urination and fatigue.
The screening test available is a non-fasting glucose test.
If more than 7.2 mmol/l of glucose a secondary test is conducted called an oral glucose tolerance test.
Increase insulin resistance.
Placenta produces cytokines which increase the risk of gestational diabetes.
Glucose in the blood can circulate to the baby
Baby may not produce enough insulin to combat the
excessive glucose produced by mother.
Light Physical Activity
Monitoring Blood Glucose Levels
Drug Therapy
Insulin Injections
Patient Education
Diet Management
Baby after birth
Having gestational diabetes may increase the size of the baby which in turn increases the chances of the child developing obesity and type 2 diabetes.
Macrosomia -> premature birth -> respiratory distress.
If mother develops ketones it can cross the placenta and be harmful to the baby.
Babies glucose level may be affected by the mothers glucose level during breastfeeding.
Mother After Birth
40-60% chance of developing type 2 diabetes 5-15 years after giving birth.
Mother may not be resistant to insulin anymore.
Testing is recommended up to 2 weeks after delivery.
Glucose tolerance test.
Development of gestational diabetes in future pregnancies.
(2012, 21). Gestational Diabetes. Diabetes Australia - Diabetes Australia. Retrieved September 09, 2013, from http://www.diabetesaustralia.com.au
(2012, 21). Gestational Diabetes. Better Health Chanel.Retrieved September 09, 2013, from http://www.betterhealthchannel.vig.gov.au
American Diabetes Association. (2005). Gestational Diabetes: What to inspect. (5th ed.). American Diabetes Association Inc. USA.
Barbour, L., McCurdy, C., Hernandez, T., Kirwan, J., Catalano, P., & Freidman, J. (2007). Cellular Mechanisms for Insulin Resistance in Normal Pregnancy and Gestational Diabetes.Diabetes Care, 30(2). Retrieved , from http://care.diabetesjournals.org doi:10.2337/dc07-s202
Chasan-Taber, L. 2012. Gestational Diabetes: Is It Preventable?. American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine. DOI: 10.1177/1559827611434401.
Dunning, T. & Ward, G. (Eds). (2008). Managing Clinical Problems in Diabetes. Oxford: UK. Blackwell Publishing.
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Moore, T. R. 2013. Diabetes Mellitus and Pregnancy. Medscape.
Mocarski. M. & Savitz. D. A. 2012. Ethnic Differences in the Association Between Gestational Diabetes and Pregnancy Outcome. Matern Child Health 16:364–373. DOI 10.1007/s10995-011-0760-6
Rae, A., Sivakumar, P., Burbridge, H., Cheong-Duryea, A., & Chauhan, P. (2013). Healthy Eating for Gestational Diabetes. Government of Western Australia: Deparment of Health. Retrieved from http://kemh.health.wa.gov.au/brochures/consumers/wnhs0560.pdf
Roy, M., Tomar, M., & Jindal, R. (2012). Recent advances in the treatment of gestational diabetes. Apollo Medicine, 9(3), 242-245. Retrieved , from http://www.apollomedicaljournal.net doi:10.1016/j.apme.2012.07.007
Touchette, N. (2005). American Diabetes Association complete guide to diabetes. (4th ed.). American Diabetes Association Inc. USA.
Whitelaw, B. & Gayle, C. 2011. Gestational Diabetes. Obstetrics, Gynaecology & Reproductive Medicine. Volume 21, Issue 2, Pages 41–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ogrm.2010.11.001
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