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LSA2010 ryan fee & felicia pick Criminology

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Felicia Pick

on 28 April 2010

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Transcript of LSA2010 ryan fee & felicia pick Criminology

Criminology What is classical criminology? Definition: Crime happens
because of conscious choice.
Nothing influences that decision
besides the cost benefit analysis
of the criminal. Focus on punishment
is key. Free Will Theory Belief that humans are
rational, & have the ability
to make decisions according
to each individuals own will,
& purposes. People understand
the difference between right & wrong,&
choose to commit crime or follow the law.
What is positive criminology? Defintion: Crime happens because there are external forces which influence a person towards criminality. These influences do not guarantee a decision to commit crime, but make the decision more likely. Focus on rehabilitation is key. There are 3 types of
positive criminology:
Biological(body),
Psychological(mind) &
Sociological (environment) One type of Biological
theory is: Somatotypes Theory (By Sheldon) William Sheldon: was an American psychologist
who devoted his life to observing the variety of human
bodies & temperaments. In the 1940s, Sheldon developed
a theory that has 3 basic body types. Endomorphic, mesomorphic, & ectomorphic Based on your body type/shape
determines your personality, & based
off that you may commit crime. - Endomorphic:
Body type-
-soft body
-underdevloped muscles
-round shaped
-over developed digestive
system

Personality traits-
-love of food
-tolerant
-evenness of emotions
-love of comfort
-sociable
-good humored
-relaxed
-need for affection

Mesomorphic:
Body type-
-hard & muscular body
-overly mature appearance
-rectangular shape
=thick skin
-upright posture

Personality traits-
-adventurous
-desire for power & dominance
-courageous
-indifference to what others think or want
-assertive, bold
-zest for physical activity
-competitive
--love of risk & chance

- Ectomorphic-
Body type-
-thin
-flat chest
-delicate build
-young appearance
-tall
-lightly muscled
-stoop shouldered
-large brain

Personality traits:
-self conscious
=preference for privacy
-introverted
-inhibited
-socially anxious
=artistic
-mentally intense
-emotionally restrained




A somatotype is simply
an individuals dominant
body type ( what they
are most like ) In sheldon's research he found
that a main influence to criminality
may be from the personality traits of a mesomorphy or intermediate ectomorphy. Sheldon also stated that personality is related to the type
of body we have. Sheldon did not think
that any person is one type
or somatotype or another. Sites: http://www.kheper.net/topics/typology/somatotypes.html Psychological theory Moral Development theory defeniton- A theory that places the majority of responsibility for crime on the mind or psychy of a criminal. Examples include:

Psychoanalytic theory
Moral Development theory
Learning theory Lawerence Kohlberg first wrote of the theory in his 1958 dissertation Psychological post- graduate. University of Chicago This theory is the idea that there are stages (within levels) of moral development or reasoning and people who reach higher stages are less likely to commit crime. Pre-Conventional level
Stage 1: " how can I avoid punishment?" ex. A child stays quiet in a bookstore while shopping with a parent to avoid being scolded. Stage 2: " What's in it for me?" obedience and punishment orientation self-intrest orientation ex. A child stays quiet in a bookstore while shopping with a parent to get a treat or reward of some sort. Conventional level interpersonal accord and conformity Stage 3: The good boy/girl attitude This stage refers to the idea of someones image. As in they do something to make themselves look good. ex. Someone helps an elderly person across the street because they know that thier boss is watching. Authority and social-order maintaining orientation Stage 4: Law and order morality In this stage people don't do things becuase it's against the law. But if it's within the law it's ok. In this stage peoples' thought on right and wrong fluctuates to align with the law. ex. A person goes exactly the speed limit because they need to get to a hospital, but will refuse to go over the limit because its against the law Post-conventional social contract theory Stage 5 This stage refers to the idea that there are many different opinions in the world and society should try to oblige to everyones needs and wants and that is what should determine the laws which a citizen should follow. ex. A democratic government, the vote of the masses determines a law which everyone should follow.
Universal ethnic principles Stage 6: principled conscience In the final stage of the moral development theory a person simply does something, or doesn't do something because it is the right moral decision. nothing more and nothing less. Sociologial theory Social Control theory the social control theory presents the idea that peoples' relationships with others and environment contributes to the probability of their devient choices. there were a few different "fathers" of the social control theory. the theory was developed over time and thought. some "fathers" include: Travis Hirschi
Albert J. Reiss
Jackson Toby
F. Ivan Nye
and more... Ex. If a baby from a wealthy home were to be taken and placed with a family in "the hood" that child would develop skills to survive in that environment. The child would also learn social skills that are the norm of that area. On the contrary if you were to place a baby born into a poor family living in a rundown neighborhood, in a very high end family that child would develop mannerisms that fight that lifestyle. There are generally 3 categories
of positive criminology, Biological (body)
Psychological (mind) or Sociological (environment).
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