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Transcript of Training

How do employees learn best?
Be clear with information given.
Simplify written materials.
Role-playing creates emotional realism.
Make training context parallel to working environment.
Use real life examples, concepts, and terms.
Provide feedback.
Andrea Vallejo
Training Needs Analysis
1. Organization Analysis
Where is training needed in the organization?

2. Task Analysis
List of job tasks
Time spent on task
Importance of task
Difficulty of task

3. Personal Analysis
Who needs training, and what kind?
Do performance deficiencies result from a lack of KSAs?
What is Training?
Planned efforts to help employees acquire job-related knowledge, skills, abilities, and behaviors, with the goal of applying these on the job

Needs Assessment
The process of evaluating the organization, individual employees, and employees' tasks to determine what kinds of training, if any, are necessary
"Education is that whole system of human training within and without the school house walls, which molds and develops men."- W.E.B. DuBois


1. Must keep in mind how people

2. Must be
to the workplace

Measuring Results of Training
1. Evaluation Methods
2. Applying the Evaluation


How do you ensure transfer of training?

Transfer of Training
: on-the-job use of knowledge, skills, and behaviors learned in training.

They must apply what they learned...
Social support
Technical support

Employee's Attitudes & Attributes Influencing Training Effectiveness
[The End]
Brent, Savanah, Andrea, & Alec
Question #1
What process evaluates the organization, individual employees, and employees' tasks to determine what kinds of training, if any, are necessary?

A. Instructional Design
B. Needs assessment
C. Evaluation
D. Planned Training
Question #2
What is analyzed in the needs assessment?

A. Organization, task, person analyses
B. Employers, employees, third parties
C. Leaders, followers, situation
D. Needs, wants, traits
What are planned efforts to help employees acquire job-related knowledge, skills, abilities, and behaviors, with the goal of applying these on the job?

A. Task analysis
B. Learning management system (LMS)
C. Instructional design
D. Training
What process is systematically developing training to meet specified needs?

A. Organization analysis
B. Learning management system (LMS)
C. Instructional design
D. Training
Question #6
What was one of the effective characteristics to have outlined in the training objectives?

A. measurable performance standards
B. quality of job performance
C. lack of resources
D. motivational work behavior
Question #7
Over 1/2 of companies within the United States do what in devising a plan for how to train their employees?

A. provide social support
B. Outsource
C. Implementation
D. Train internally
Question #9
What training context adds emotional realism?

A. Physical setting
B. Effective feedback
C. Role-play
D. Orientation
Question #8
In relation to the article about employee attitudes affecting training effectiveness, what was defined to reflect one's confidence in their ability to exert control over motivation, behavior and social environment?

A. trainability
B. self-motivation
C. self-evaluation
D. self-efficacy
E. None of the above
Question #10
Transfer of Training is the use of _________, _________, and _____________ learned in training.

A. orientation, communication, & application
B. knowledge, skills, & abilities
C. practice, performance, feedback
D. knowledge, skills, & behaviors
Question #11
What is the content of a typical orientation program?

A. compensation, housing, department tours
B. application, interview, company overview
C. job duties, meditation, safety prevention
D. role-play, customer relations, recruitment
Question #12
Which of the following is the key difference between apprenticeships and internships?

A. Apprenticeships are shorter than internships.
B. Unlike apprenticeships, internships are sponsored by institutions.
C. Unlike internships, apprenticeships are applicable to knowledge workers.
D. Interns are paid for their work, while apprentices are not.
Training Linked to Organization Needs
Instructional Design

Learning Management System (LMS)
Impact of HRM Practices on Perceptions of Organizational Performance
Andrea Vallejo
Andrea Vallejo
Andrea Vallejo
Andrea Vallejo
Hypothesis 1: Progressive HRM practices (those affecting employee skills, employee motivation, and the structure of work) will be positively related to organizational performance.
Hypothesis 2: Complementarities or synergies among progressive HRM practices will be positively related to organizational performance.
Subjects, Measures, and Design
727 organizations
64.9% population
Telephone surveys
42 minutes
Hypothesis 1 supported
matched previous studies
Hypothesis 2 supported
each dependent variable
Major Point:
HRM training towards employees positively effects the organizational performance
On-the-Job Training
Question #3
Question #4

Learn by practice
Advantage: realistic
Disadvantage: quality can vary depending on the trainer

Practitioner Journal
On-The-Job Training of New Hires

small portion receive specialized training
employers prefer some experience in relevant field
larger companies invest more in new hires
less training occurs when company struggles
coworkers more effective when trained by other coworkers
Training Objectives
Training Readiness:
Are You Ready?
employee readiness
cognitive ability
willing to learn
work environment
situational constraints
social support
provides as basis for measuring success
employees learn better
effective characteristics:
measurable performance standards
identification of resources necessary
statement of expectations
Savanah Shick
Savanah Shick
Size of Unit to be Learned
Teach the entire task at one time, or teach subtasks?
Depends on task complexity vs. task organization
Complexity – may need to teach subtasks
Organization – how related subtasks are
Savanah Shick
Train Internally or Outsource?
Training internally
Savanah Shick
Savanah Shick
Over 1/2 U.S. companies outsource instruction of training courses
Brent Harkins
Brent Harkins
Brent Harkins
Brent Harkins
Brent Harkins
Brent Harkins
Brent Harkins
Brent Harkins
Classroom Instruction

-Typically involves a trainer lecturing a group

-One of the least expensive and time consuming training methods when the information presented is on a specific topic

-Distance learning

-Provides many of the classroom benefits without cost and time of travel

-Disadvantage: Interaction between trainer and audience may be limited

Training Methods
Presentation methods:
Goal: Convey facts and information
Hands-on methods:
Goal: Teach specific skills
Group-building methods:
Establish and improve teamwork

Audiovisual Training
-Do not require trainees to attend class

-Ability to work independently

-Audiovisual materials can easily be made available on a variety of devices

-Users often have some control over the presentation
-Videos can show situations and equipment that can’t be easily demonstrated in a classroom
-Give trainees consistent presentations

-May try to present too much material
-Poorly written dialogue
-Overuse of features such as humor or music and drama that distracts from key points

Computer-Based Training
-Participants receive course materials and instruction through the Internet or on a CD-ROM

-Often the materials are interactive

-Generally less expensive than classroom instruction

-E-learning: involves training via the Internet or the organization’s intranet, typically through some combination of web-based training modules, distance learning, and virtual classrooms

-Electronic performance support systems (EPPSs): computer applications that provide access to skills training, information, and expert advice when a problem occurs on the job

On-the-Job Training
-Training method in which a person with job experience and skill guides trainees in practicing job skills at the workplace

-Apprenticeship: work-study training method that teaches job skills through a combination of structured on-the-job training and classroom training

-Government requirements for an apprenticeship program vary by occupation

-Some sponsored by individual companies and other by employee unions

-Ability to earn income while learning a trade

-Internship: on-the-job training sponsored by an educational institution as a component of an academic program

-Sponsoring school work with local employers

-A training method that represents a real life situation, with trainees making decisions resulting in outcomes that mirror what would happen on the job

-Enables trainees to see impact of their decisions

-Used for teaching production and process skills as well as management and interpersonal skills

-Must have elements identical to those found in the work environment

-Expensive to develop and need constant updating

-Trainees participate by creating avatars and using virtual reality


effective job performance
organization knowledge
build relationships
Beyond the Business Case: An Ethical Perspective of Diversity Training (Human Resource Management)
67% of US organizations & 74% of Fortune 500 companies
$1 million per year
: backlash & participant resistance
: increase knowledge, improve attitude, develop skills

Thank You!
Question #5
Question #13
_________ refers to the combination of employee characteristics and positive work environment that permit training.

A. Diversity training
B. Learning management
C. Orientation analysis
D. Task appreciation
E. Readiness for training
Question #14
What are the 2 challenges in diversity training?

A. competition & programming
B. recruitment & interviews
C. backlash & employee behavior
D. participant resistance & backlash

Needs Assessment
: Why is it important?
How to determine
Readiness for Training
How to
Plan an Effective Training
Objectives of Training
Methods of Training
How to
Implement a Training Program
How to
Evaluate the Success of Training
How to
Practice Training Applications

Journal of Organizational Behavior, Noe
What combination of elements do you need to accurately assess an organization's employees'
readiness for training

A. Cognitive ability & situational constraints
B. Positive work environment & cognitive ability
C. employee characteristics & positive work environment
D. Social support & employee characteristics
E. None of the above
relates back to readiness for training
hypothesis: trainability relates to motivation, ability & perceptions of work environment
results: self-efficacy relates strongly to effectiveness
Get Ready...
What term is defined as a computer application that automates the administration, development, and delivery in training programs?

A. Learning Zone (LZ)
B. Learning management system (LMS)
C. Computer-aided development (CAD)
D. Electronic performance support system (EPSS)
Question #15
Andrea Vallejo
Full transcript