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The History of Spain - Early Settlers of the Iberian
Transcript of The History of Spain - Early Settlers of the Iberian
North African Tartessians The Tartessians occupied a large portion of southern Spain. Basques The origin of the Basques is uncertain as is the time period of their arrival to Spain. They are thought to have arrived around the same time as the Iberians, or shortly thereafter. Phoenicians The Phoenicians were important trading partners with the Tartessians. They also occupied areas of southern Spain. Early Settlers of the Iberian The History of Spain In what we now know to be Spain, prehistoric man was a hunter - the agricultural process was basically unknown. This way of life is depicted in the paintings found in the Caves of Altamira in the northern province of Santander. The Basque language is believed to be an offshoot of the Iberian language.
Esklabu erremintaria The blacksmith slave
Sartaldeko oihanetan gatibaturik Captive in the rainforests of the West
Erromara ekarri zinduten, esklabua, they brought you to Rome, slave,
erremintari ofizioa eman zizuten they gave you the blacksmith work
eta kateak egiten dituzu. and you make chains.
Labetik ateratzen duzun burdin goria The incandescent iron you take out of the oven
nahieran molda zenezake, can be adapted as you want,
ezpatak egin ditzakezu you can make swords
zure herritarrek kateak hauts ditzaten, in order that your people could break the chains,
baina zuk, esklabu horrek, but you, o, slave,
kateak egiten dituzu, kate gehiago. you make chains, more chains.
-Joseba Sarrionandia -Joseba Sarrionandia The Phoenicians came to
Spain purely for commercial
reasons. They founded the
city of Gadir (Cádiz) which
later became the center
of their Mediterranean empire. Africa The Phoenicians established the colony of Carthage in northern Africa.
The Carthaginians positioned themselves in southern (southeast) Spain. - This restricted the Greeks to costal areas north of Alicante.
Rome later gained total control of Italy and wanted to dominate the Mediterranean.
The Carthaginians reacted and started an all-out war. This was the beginning of the Punic Wars.
These wars came to be known as the Punic Wars because "Poeni" was the Roman word for Phoenicians - signifying the Roman recognition of Carthage as a Phoenician city.
The first Punic War (264-241 B.C.) was a defeat for Carthage - resulting in their loss of the island of Sicily.
During the second Punic War (218-202 B.C.), the Carthaginian general, Hannibal defeated the Romans in many battles.
In the Spanish city of Sagunto, Hannibal and his army killed all of the city's inhabitants. Later, Hannibal led his army over the Alps to attack the Romans on their own land.
The Romans were finally able to defeat Hannibal in North Africa where he later decided to commit suicide rather than be turned over to the Romans.
The third Punic War (149-146 B.C.) led to Rome's complete defeat of Carthage.
While many believe that democracy was created by the Greeks and Romans, this is not the entire story. Even Aristotle praised the constitutional government of Carthage - a government which answered directly to its people. Celts The Celts first invaded Spain through the eastern end of the Pyrenees mountains in the 8th-6th century B.C. The Celts in Galicia Many of the sights and sounds in Galicia are similar to those found in Scotland.
bagpipes (galleta galleo)
Celtic villages built on hills for strategic defense.
Modern day pilgrims traveling to Santiago de Compostela can see the Galician Celtic village of O Cebreiro. Greeks The Greeks were attracted to Spain because of its vast metal deposits. Around 600 B.C., they colonized Massalia (Marseilles) in the south of France. Because of its geographic position, Massalia (Marseilles) later became the center for Greek commerce in the Mediterranean. After the Battle of Alalia, the Greeks first cut off the routes of the Tartessians then founded the colonies of Emporion (Ampurias), Akra-Leuke (Alicante), and Alonis (Benidorm). Carthaginians Roman Warfare While Hannibal was attacking the Romans on their own soil, Roman armies were on the attack in Spain.
Originally, Rome was only interested in gaining Spain's natural resources by enslaving its inhabitants.
This resulted in a revolt led by the Lusitanians - a combination of Portuguese and Spanish Celt-Iberians.
An old shepherd, Viriato, led the Lusitanians in attacks against Rome for eight years (147-139 B.C.) During which Viriato and his soldiers defeated many Roman generals.
Viriato later signed a treaty with the Roman consul but the period of peace ended when a group of Lusitanians were bribed by Quinto Servilio Cepión to kill Viriato in his sleep. Viriato's successor was later forced to give into Roman demands. Fall of Numancia In 153 B.C., Numancia (a Carthaginian city), had its first conflict with Rome.
After 20 years of hostility, the Roman Senate decided to destroy Numancia. Troops then laid seige to the city by building a fence around the city supported by towers, moats, impaling rods, etc.
After 13 months of attacks, most Numancians surrendered to the Romans. However, some decided to burn the city and themselves in order to die free, rather than being enslaved by the Romans.
The fall of Numancia marks the end of the Roman resistance by the Carthaginians and the beginning of Roman domination in the Iberian Peninsula. Romanization After the fall of Numancia (122 B.C), Roman domination of Spain was nearly complete, leaving only the northern part of Spain free from Roman rule.
Therefore, Emperor Augustus attacked Spain on three fronts: Asturias (northern Spain), Galicia (northwestern Spain), and Cantabria (northern Spain near the French border).
This three-front siege led to the Roman defeat of Spain.
Spain greatly contributed to the Roman empire - Adriano, Trajano and Teodosio were Spanish emperors of the Roman empire; Seneca and Lucio Junio Moderato were Spanish philosophers; and the famous Spanish poet, Marco Valerio Marcial.
The Roman presence is still evident in Spain today through various constructions such as: Aqueduct in Segovia Amphitheater in Mérida