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The Transcendental Movement

What influenced American Literature in the 19th century.
by

Ronita Lussier

on 19 March 2013

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Transcript of The Transcendental Movement

What lead to the transcendental movement? Unitarianism: Unitarians placed a premium
on stability, harmony, rational thought,
progressive morality, classical learning,
and other hallmarks of Enlightenment Christianity. The essay became the key statement of the principles in forming New England transcendentalism, Not surprisingly, Nature has often been called the "manifesto" of transcendentalism. The Transcendental movement and
how it changed
American literature
Romanticism:
characterized by a heightened interest in nature, emphasis on the individual's expression of emotion and imagination, departure from the attitudes and forms of classicism, and rebellion against established social rules and conventions. Suffered great losses in his life including 3 siblings in childhood, his father at age 8, his first wife and his son Waldo at age 5. Began to question the fundamental teachings of Christianity and how people connect to God 1829 Becomes a pastor
and marries Ellen Tucker Kantian metaphysics: "we can never actually know (but can only intuit or surmise) the true nature of things." Orientalism and mysticism: Hinduism,Buddhism, Confusianism, and Islam. Platonism and neo-platonism:
"the ultimate realities of the
universe are ideas, not things." Ralph Waldo Emerson: considered the father of transcendental movement by many Ralph Waldo Emerson
( 1803–1882) was an American essayist,
lecturer, and poet,
who led the Transcendentalist movement of the mid-19th century. Attended Harvard 1817-1821 graduates and enters Harvard school of divinity. Born in 1803 to a Unitarian minister,
one of 8 children. After returning to America Emerson
has a new perspective and
embarks on a new journey. Nature: an essay written by Ralph Waldo Emerson,
published anonymously in 1836. “The happiest man is he who learns from
nature the lesson of worship” “Though we travel the world over to find the beautiful, we must carry it with us or we find it not.” “Have mountains, and waves, and skies, no significance but what we consciously give them, when we employ them as emblems of our thoughts?” “But if a man would be alone, let him look
at the stars. The rays that come from those heavenly worlds, will separate between him
and vulgar things.” After losing wife of 18 months he quits preaching and in 1832 Travels throughout Europe meeting William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge and the Scottish writer Thomas Carlyle. Emerson begins sketching out his philosophies on nature and self-reliance. Henry David Thoreau a dear friend of Emerson was an American author, philosopher, and naturalist who was part of the Transcendentalist movement. He built himself a world on Walden pond and lived within nature for 2 years. Writing of his experience in
Walden, or Life in the woods. “I went to the woods because I wished to live deliberately, to front only the essential facts of life, and see if I could not learn what it had to teach, and not, when I came to die, discover that I had not lived. I did not wish to live what was not life, living is so dear; nor did I wish to practise resignation, unless it was quite necessary. I wanted to live deep and suck out all the marrow of life, .." “I have never found a companion
that was so companionable
as solitude.” Because of Emerson,Thoreau and others
American literature will forever be changed. Walt Whitman was a poet and journalist who lived from 1819 to 1892. "Leaves of Grass" contained poems of a sensual, earthy nature and he was inspired by Ralph Waldo Emerson's work. He said "I was simmering and simmering
and emerson brought me to a boil" Margaret Fuller, was an American journalist, critic, and women's rights advocate. She worked with Emerson on a magazine called the Dial. Louisa May Alcott grew up under the wing of Emerson and said of him "Many a thoughtful young man and woman owe to Emerson the spark that kindled their highest aspirations, and showed them how to make the conduct of life a helpful lesson, not a blind struggle. " Humanities 100
Capstone project
How transcendentalism impacted American Literature.
Ronita Lussier 3/18/2013 Sources:
Emerson: The Ideal in America—Educator’s Edition film from PCC Video
Culture and Values: A Survey of the Humanities 7E by Lawrence S. Cunningham
http://condor.depaul.edu/dsimpson/awtech/amertran.html
http://www.transcendentalists.com/
http://www.online-literature.com/periods/transcendentalism.php Emily Dickinson author of more than 1000 poems treasured Emerson's book of poetry and attended at least one of his leactures. His influence on her is noted amongst scholars. “Every spirit builds itself a house; and beyond its house a world; and
beyond its world, a heaven. Know then, that the world exists for you.
For you is the phenomenon perfect. What we are, that only can we see.
All that Adam had, all that Caesar could, you have and can do. Adam called his
house, heaven and earth; Caesar called his house, Rome; you perhaps
call yours, a cobler's trade; a hundred acres of ploughed land; or a
scholar's garret. Yet line for line and point for point, your dominion is as great
as theirs, though without fine names. Build, therefore, your own world.” From Nature.
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