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SUMMARY OF FRENCH REVOLUTION AOS2
Transcript of SUMMARY OF FRENCH REVOLUTION AOS2
THE FRENCH REVOLUTION
THE DECLARATION OF THE RIGHTS OF MAN AND CITIZEN
A document created by the newly formed National Assembly. Influenced by the writings of various Philosophes, it was the 'blueprint' for the new society after the fall of the Ancien Regime
SIGNIFICANCE: Would go on to inform the Constitutions of 1791, 1793 and 1795.Was followed up by the Fundemental Principles of Government (1 October 1789) which limited th epowers of the King in the new Constitutional Monarchy
The Women's March to Versailles
(4-5 October, 1789)
Angered by the ongoing high prices of bread and rumours that Louis had rejected DORMAC and had trampled the Revolutionary cockade (thanks to Marat and his paper L'Am de Peuple), some 7000 people, mainly working women of Paris, travel 17 miles to Versailles and brought the Royal family back to Paris to keep an eye on them. Lafayette and newly formed National Guard prevent serious violence (Just!)
SIGNIFICANCE: Brings the Royal family closer to unpredictable revolutionary crowd and National Assembly, and demonstrates the power of the 'mob'
Throughout this time, the National Assembly planned and implemented a series of reforms (underpinned by the DORMAC) in the creation of a 'new society'. These included:
Separating France into 83 separate provinces which had democratically elected leaders. This DECENTRALISATION complicated the return of an Absolute Monarchy
Made LEGAL AND JUDICIAL REFORMS, including the introduction of the humane guillotine, trial by jury for all and free legal representation
Arranged that as of 1791, TAX would be equal, including a uniform land tax. They also removed internal tariffs
Reforms on the National (Constituent) Assembly
Occuring between 1789 - 1791)
Political Clubs formed throughout 1789 to 1791
(and later continue to emerge and change!)
The JACOBINS formed during 1789 in Paris, and quickly clubs sprung up in toher towns and cities. They started as a modest bourgeois movement, but became a republican group (i.e: getting rid of the King) throughout 1790 - 1791. Members included Maximillein Robespeirre, Abbé Sieyès, Mirabeau, Abbé Grégoire
The CORDELIERS formed in January 1791. This Parisian radical group (i.e: get rid of the King) were cheap to be incolved in and even admoitted women! They drew great support from the Sans Cullote of Paris, and objected the active/passive citizen idea in the Constitution of 1791. Members included Danton, Desmoulins and journalists Hébert, Brissot and Marat
Whether through their place in the National Assembly or through radical journalism, these groups had a significant influence!
The Civil Constitution of the Clergy (12 July 1790)
and the Clerical Oath (27 November 1790)
The CIVIL CONSTITUTION OF THE CLERGY , part of the reforms of the National Assembly, was controverial. It sought to have 83 elected bishops in each province, who were elected by citizens. This removed the power of the Pope in Rome. He didn't like this! Many Bishops said no to this reform, splitting 'revolutionary priests' and those 'unpatriotic'.
In order to deal with unpatriotic priest, the National Assembly enforced the CLERICAL OATH which forced priest to take an oath of loyalty to the French Government. This reluctantly supported by Louis XVI, but he later withdrew this support. The majority of the Clergy disobeyed and became known as 'refractory priests'. They later became a serious target of the revolutionary crowd
SIGNFICANCE: Creates a group of counter-revolutionaries in the priests and many religoius folk around the country (particularly the Vendee region. Also, Louis took an oath from a refractory priest, resulting in doubt in his committment to the Revolution
PERIOD OF CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY
4 AUGUST 1789
10 AUGUST 1792
The King's Flight to Varennes
20 - 21 June 1791
Fearful after a mob intimidated the royal family when attempting to have a weekend retreat earlier in the year, and combined with political and social pressure, the Royal family attempted to escape the country and flee to Austria. They were identified at Varennes (north of Paris) by a tavern owner whoidentified Louis' face on a bank note (assignant!). They do not recieve a warm welcome on returning to Paris
SIGNIFANCE: The conservative members of the National Assembly put out the story he was kid napped, but the more radical political clubs question this story publicly. The people felt abandoned and seriously question the King's commitment to the Revolution. He watched VERY closely!
The massacre of the Champ de Mars
17 July 1791
The Cordeliers arrange a petition (signed by 30,000 people!). That the King had abdicated when he fled to Varennes. Supported by the Jacobins, they arrange a referdum through the National Assembly to publically decide on this. It gets rowdy and Bailly calls on Lafayette to and the National Guard to control the crowd. They can't batle occurs wherein 50 are killed. Interestingly, the vote supported keeping the King!
SIGNIFICANCE = BIG TIME! There are now two revolutions going on: One for the Constitution Monarchy and one for having a Republic (just a governing assembly of people voted in). ALSO, it's the first time revolutionaries fire on revolutionaries. ALSO, Lafayette (once a hero of the ealier Revolution) loses his popularity. ALSO, the Legislative Assembly is divided. ALSO, the mob have another confirmation of their power to control politics. ALSO, key figures like Danton and Marat go into hiding. ALSO, revolutionary clubs are closed and their publications censored.
Constitution of 1791
As a result of previous tensions, Louis XVI accepted this constitution 14 September 1791. Generally, it limited the power of the King and increased democracy in France. Some characteristics include:
Louis did have the power to suspensive veto, or the ability to delay laws.
Only 'active' citizens who paid a certain amount of tax could vote and run for a political decision. This effectively meant only 4.3 million Frenchmen
With the constitution passed, the National Constituent Assembly became the Legislative Assembly
1 October 1791 to Late 1792
As a result of the Constitution of 1791, the Legislative Assembly became the Legislative Assembly. The 745 deputies in this assembly were divided as follows:
The 'left', mainly Jacobins and Cordeliers who were pushing for a republic and limiting th powers of the King.
The 'right', mainly constitutional monarchists who support the King's place. The Feuilliants were prominant
The 'centre', who based their decision on incident by incident
Their main challenges were:
What to do with refractory priests
What to do about the King's recent actions
What to do about all the emigres: Nobles who had fled France
War with Austria: The radicalisation of the Revolution!
In the Declaration of Pillnitz (27 August 1791) Austrian Emperor Leopold II warned that European monarchies may restore Louis XVI’s authority. This was Ignored by the (then) National Assembly. The Legislative Assembly see various advantages in going to War with Austria (mainly unifying the divided nation), and delcare war on 20 April 1792.
Attacking the Austrian Netherlands, the French are severely defeated and Austrian and Prussain forces advance into France: here is a genuine sense that the Revolution will be crushed.
On 20 June 1792, 8000 protesters invade the Legislative Assembly and the Tuilieries (where Louis lives). This puts pressure on the government, and they get open up the National Guard to anyon with pike', declare the country in danger 'La Patrie en Danger', and the Paris Commune (under the influence of Danton) rename themselves the Insurrectionary Commune. They plan demonstration for 10 August, 1792.