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Nigeria and Cameroon
Transcript of Nigeria and Cameroon
By: Annie, Kristy, Dubem, Usman, Sandeed
Nigeria and Cameroon
Oceanography is the study of the ocean. An oceanographer is a person that studies the ocean. Oceans change the weather/climate in many ways.
In July 2012,severe flooding in 30 states displaced 1.3 million and killing 431 nigerians. souce:irinnews
Meteorologists tell us what the weather in our area will do day by day. They use things such as radar to help predict the weather, and it is very difficult, because a butterfly flapping its wings in China could ruin your party in Florida. They do their best, and use computers to make models and graphs on the weather to help predict it. They can predict the weather of the next 3-5 days using the tools listed above.
The climate of Nigeria and Cameroon is various in different places. The places have two named seasons. They are rainy and dry seasons. The climate can vary on the topography of the land. For an example, the climate of Mount Cameroon is different than the climate of Cameroon's coast. This is probably because of the elevation of the coast, which affects the temperature and precipitation. Now I will talk about the climate of Cameroon.
These are the highs and lows for the month of March
This is for Cameroon
As with every other country, both Nigeria and Cameroon have natural disasters happen, recently or decades ago.
In 2010, severe flooding in Cameroon's northern region has killed 30 people and 26,000 were evacuated. It was worst disaster in 60 years.
In March, these are the highs and lows for Nigeria
Oceans in General... How They Affect The Climate/ Weather
The ocean plays a major role in the weather. The world's ocean is crucial to heating the planet. The ocean can absorb, store, and transport heat. In fact, most of the sun's radiation is absorbd by the ocean. The top 10 km of the ocean can absorb more heat than the entire atmosphere. The ocean helps distribute heat all arond the world.
Sahel region is in parts of Mali, Chad, Sudan, and Nigeria. In the late 1970s and 80s a historic drought happened.The main source of precipitation, the west African Monsoon disappered for several years.
March 22: High: 98*F Low: 76*F
March 26: No data
There was a lot of unlocatable data.
Currents are mass flows of water. They are essential to understanding how heat energy moves between the Earth's bodies of water, landmasses, and atmosphere. The Global Conveyer Belt includes both surface and deep ocean currents that circulate the globe in a 1000 year cycle. The circulation is a result of 2 simultaneous processes. The first one is when warm surface currents carrying less dense water away from the Equator towards the poles. The other one is cold deep ocean currents carrying denser water away form the poles toward the Equator. This plays a key role in distributing heat energy, regulating weather and climate, and cycling key nutrients and gases. There are both warm and cold currents.
What Currents Affect Sahel?
As you can see, there are three major currents that affect Sahel. The are the
, and the
. They all play a role in affecting the weather/climate of Sahel.
*FYI: The currents that are in red are warm currents and the one in blue is a cold current.
Climate of Cameroon
Coastal Climate- The average temperature here is 22 to 29 degees celsius. The average rainfall here is 250 to 400mm.
North- The North is the hottest and driest part of the country. It is 25-27 degrees celsius in the cooler times, and grows hotter as you move up. The precipitation here is an average 100mm per month. The north is said to be semi-arid. This means little precipitation with scrubs and grasses.
Inland- This part has 150mm to 250mm of precipitation.
The central plateau only recieves 60 to 150mm of precipitation per month.
Mount Cameroon- Due to the elevation, it recieves 600 to 900mm of precipitation per year. The mountains recieve the most precipitation though.
South- Here the air is very humid and temperatures range from 20 to 25 degrees celsius.
Cameroon has a rainy and a dry season. The rainy season starts in April and ends in December. It makes the roads muddy and hard to walk on, making trips three times as long. This season is when crops are planted. The dry season is from December to March and can be very dusty and dry. The warmest months are between March and May and can go up to t0 40 degrees celsius. In the dry season, between December and February, strong winds called the Harmattan winds blow dust from the Sahara desert making the air red, dusty, leaving the air with low visibility.
How has Climate Changed?
The temperature has increased 0.7 degrees celsius since 1960, with an increase of 0.15 degrees celsius every decade. The mean annual rainfall has decreased by 2.9mm per decade.
Climate of Nigeria
There are two airmasses that control the precipitation here. The first one is a maritime from the ocean. The second one is a continental from the south african landmass. In Nigeria, humidity is high and nights are hot.
Coast- The temperature rarely exceeds 32 degrees celsius
West coast- Here the precipitation is 180mm
East coast- Here the precipitation is 430mm
Inward- Here the precipitation decreases to about 130mm
North- The precipitation decreases again and it is only 50mm
Southwest- It contains cloudy wet weather, and becomes drier as you go north
From September to November, clear skies, moderate temperatures, and low humidity are caused by winds. From December to February, these winds blow stronger turning into the Harmattan winds.
Nigeria also has a rainy season and a dry season. Alot of rain is produced during the rainy season. It starts in the southern coastal areas and spread to almost everywhere by summer. The Northern area recieves the most rain in August. The coastal areas recieve the most rain during May, June, and October. During the rainy season, temperatures drop to about 107.6 degrees Fahrenheit. The dry season is hot and humid, with temperatures up to 110 degrees Fahrenheit. It lasts from October to April. It stretches for very long, but is almost always cut off ny the rainy season. A second small dry season blows from around July to September, not affecting the rainy season much. In the dry season, the Harmattan winds blow bringing dust, high temperatures, low humidity, and fine sand. It is usual in the North but unpredictable in the south.
The rise in CO2 lately has been caused by humans. In the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries, temperature was slowly decreasing, but then started to increase rapidly from there.
The climate of Cameroon can greatly affect its agriculture. The increase in temperature and precipitation change can damage the agriculture, and since agriculture is 30% of Cameroon's GDP, it can greatly destroy the economy. Agriculture is very vulnerable to climate change.
Climate effects on Cameroon
Climate Effects on Nigeria
Gases released by humans are very destructive. The increase in temperature has caused a rise in sea level leading to disastorous things. A disease called meningitis is very active. The disease is alot more active during the dry season due to the wind, dust, and cold. There were 25,00 cases in 76 areas, with 1,500 deaths. The dry climate has lead to dry water beds, forcing people to move there plantations to the south due to the tension.
Will Anybody Help Stop Climate Change from Hurting the Country?
Nigeria- Leaders struggle to look for a way to reduce climate change without carbon footprint. In 2012, a flood killed Nigerians during the rainy season and damaged oil production faucilities. The government now partners with international leaders to rebuild and make climate resistant buildings. Agriculture is 30% of Nigeria's GDP and employs 70% of the people. Higher temperatures and reduced precipitation can reduce the crop growth by 20 to 30%. It is also putting stress on animals and livestock reducing growth rate. This will make it harder to produce food, energy, and water security. Reports have been launched about how Nigeria's economy will help keep the country climate resistant. Toward-Resilient Development in Nigeria looks at the climate impacts on agriculture, livestock, and water resource management. Farmers practice land management ways like agroforestry, or no tillage. The Low Carbon Developement in Nigeria has a strategy to position Nigeria as the international leader on climate. They will adopt a strategy for power. For an example, solar and wind energy. This is hard though because it will have to avoid the emmisions of around 2 billion tons of CO2.
The Canary Current
The Canary Current is a cold water current. Its cool water is produced by upwelling caused by offshore winds from the continent. As the current flows around the Canary Islands, it helps lessen the heating effect of the Sahara to the east.
The Equatorial Current
Why are the weathers of Cameroon and Nigeria so different?
Northern Nigeria was part of the Sahel region that witnessed the historic drought in the 1970s and 80s caused by the lack of rain from the West African monsoon during that time.
Lake Nyos and Lake Monoun were the locations of limnic eruptions (eruption of high amounts of carbon dioxide from displaced water) that killed many crops, people, and livestock. Lake Monoun’s eruption in 1984 killed 38 people. Lake Nyos’ eruption in 1986 killed 1,700 people and 3,500 livestock
"Cameroon climate shows that the average temperature of the coastal plain ranges from 22*C to 29*C." This is a quote from the link http://www.mapsofworld.com/cameroon/geography/climate.html
It also says that the climate is rainy in some seasons and dry in others.
There are rainy and dry seasons along the coast here. Found at http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/414840/Nigeria/55285/Climate
Relevant disasters are floods, drought , earthquakes, tsunamis, thunderstorms
The Guinea Current
The Guinea Current is a warm water current. It flows along the east coast of Africa. It is characterized by the areas of upwelling and the increased biological productivity. Again, since it is a warm water current, it warms up Sahel.
1. What are some famous disaster sites in Nigeria?
2.What are some famous disaster sites in Cameroon?
3.What natural hazards are still relavent in the area?
After reading both articles, I decided that there is no differece in their overall climates, but their day to day weather is different in the same way that Georgia's and Alabama's is.
Will Anybody Help Stop Climate Change from Hurting the Country?
Warm water currents bring warm water from the Equator to the poles. The cold water from the poles then flow towards the Equator. This heat traveling in the water keeps places like Europe from freezing over.
Cold water currents bring cold water from the poles to the Equator. The warm water from the Equator then flows towards the poles.
To prevent or contain floods Nigeria has built flood drains. If this fails disaster agencies such as the Nigerian red cross can help.
Cameroon has similar measures and the PIC(stands for something in french) is an aid group.
Causes of disasters
Sahel drought was caused by the lackluster rainfall brought by the west african monsoon.
2012 floods in 30 states caused by failure of flood drains.
2010 floods in Northern Region in Cameroon were caused by government not telling citizens that flooding was supposed to be more severe than usual.
Cameroon- When people started talking about the climate of Cameroon, doors opened to link strategies to help the climate of Cameroon. Researchers showed efforts to mitigate global warming by stopping deforestation can no longer help people adapt to the inevitable change in climate change. The study drew attention to two communtity forest carbon conservation projects in Southern Cameroon. They were implemented by the Centre for Environment and Development and the Congo Basin Forests and Climate Change Adaption research project. As climate affects weather, Seasons and crop production allow farmers to expand there farms by clearing forests. This is hurting the base of the mitigration projects there, where people are payed to protect the forest. If we reduce the emmision and greenhouse gases released, we can dominate climate change, but people must adapt to the climate change.
Nigeria topography notes (Niger River)
The Niger River is the primary river for West Africa, much like Lake Lanier is for us.
• The Niger is the third biggest river in Africa.
• The Niger fills many lakes and reservoirs
It has a length of 2,600 miles.
Nigeria topography notes
• Entire coast is covered in swamps
• They continue to branches of the
Niger and other smaller creeks and
As you can see, the ocean can affect the weather/climate in many ways. Ocean currents can warm/cool the temperature. Oceans can play a big role in affecting the weather. They can warm/cool temperature by absorbing, holding, and transporting heat. Oceans can do alot to change the weather/climate. Oceans are one of nature's most powerful tools.
• Beyond the creeks, there is a zone about
50-100 miles wide of tropical rainforests
• After that the county rises to a plateau
with an elevation of about 600 meters.
• The northern area is too harsh
with lack of rainfall for humans
• There are mountains from the southwest
all the way across the Cameroonian
• Nigeria covers 400,000 square miles,
which is twice the size of California
• The northern section includes both
savanna and grasslands.
Topography group questions
This shows the yearlong temperatures of Abuja, Nigeria. You can see that the temperature is fairly high in the beginning, and then decreases during the middle months, and then gradually increases at the end.
Does the land feature at a certain area in Nigeria/Cameroon affect the temperature there?
More on Temperature
The points and the line connecting them also show the yearlong temperature.
I found two cities to look at, one right beside the Niger River, and the other right beside Mount Cameroon. I will compare their temperatures for the first 3 days of this year.
This table showes the temperatures for the 2 cities at the first 3 days of the month. It proves that the areas with mountains are colder than others.
Cameroon topography notes
The western lowlands extend along the Gulf of Guinea coast
It has an average width of 100km
It has an altitude of 2000ft
The northwestern highlands consist of volcanic mountains
These reach up to 8000ft. Mt. Cameroon is the highest peak of the country (13435)
The centeral plateau region extends from the western lowlands and the northwestern highlands north to the benue river
It contains the Adamawa Plateau (2950, 4920)
This is the average monthly precipitation for Abuja, Nigeria. The precipitation in the beginning of the year is very low, but quickly increases in June. Then, it dips in July and August increases in September, and quickly decreases during the last few months.
This is also another graph that shows the same information. Though, the dip in July and August is not shown, but does not make a major difference.
2014- The least humid month of 2014 was February with an average daily low humidity of 20%, and the most humid month was September with an average daily low humidity of 81%. You can see that in the graph, the humidity starts off much ranged, but then, the average slowly starts to increase in the middle months. At the end of the year, the humidity quickly decreases.
This graph basically shows the average wind speed for each month. The red shows the average wind speed, and the green shows the maximum wind speed for each month recorded. The wind speeds were steady, and then increased in the middle. They then decreased in the end.
2014- The highest sustained wind speed was 46 mph, occurring on April 28; the highest daily mean wind speed was 12 mph (February 6); and the highest wind gust speed was 18 mph (August 7).
The windiest month was February, with an average wind speed of 6 mph. The least windy month was September, with an average wind speed of 4 mph.
This chart basically shows the average past temperatures for the area. It started off moderate, then decreased in the middle months, but increased again at the end of the year.
This chart shows the average precipitation for year long weather. There is little rainfall at the beginning of the year and it increases gradually where it peaks in July, and then quickly decreases.
This chart basically shows the humidity for a whole year. The humidity is a little low at the beginning, then increases in the middle months, and then decreases again.
2014- The least humid month of 2014 was February with an average daily low humidity of 61%, and the most humid month was August with an average daily low humidity of 80%. The brown showed the comfort humidity for that time, and the blue shows the highest it went. It has the same information and pattern as the other graphs and charts, and is not much different.
2014- The highest sustained wind speed was 23 mph, occurring on October 26; the highest daily mean wind speed was 5 mph (April 9); and the highest wind gust speed was 30 mph (May 5). The windiest month was August, with an average wind speed of 3 mph. The least windy month was January, with an average wind speed of 2 mph. The pattern of wind is a little scattered here. It is a tiny bit lower in the middle months though. It is also a little lower at the beginning and end of the months.
2010- The hottest day of 2010 was February 23, with a high temperature of 102°F. The hottest month of 2010 was April with an average daily high temperature of 96°F. You can also see the temperature for 2010 in this graph. It also shows the highest and lowest temperature for each month. There is not much missing data. This will be compared with the 2014 graph.
2014- The hottest day of 2014 was January 23, with a high temperature of108°F. The hottest month of 2014 was January with an average daily high temperature of 95°F. You can also see the temperature for 2014 in this graph. It also shows the highest and lowest temperature for each month.
Compare with 2010
In 2010, the temperatures at the beginning of the year were a lot cooler, and gradually increased to April, where the temperatures at that point are now the same as the temperatures of January now. According to my research, this can be because of the release of carbon dioxide in the area.
Compare with 2010
2010- The day in 2010 with the most precipitation observations was October 5. There were 12 hourly weather reports that day (out of a maximum of 24) in which some form of precipitation was observed at or near the station. The month with the most precipitation observations was May, with 76 hourly present weather reports involving some form of precipitation. This chart is the 2010 precipitation here. Some information was not recorded. The chart is more detailed because the orange will show thunderstorms, and the green shows simple rain. The y axis shows the amount of weather reports for the day. The longest dry spell was from January 1 to April 12. January, February, March, and December were the months observed with the least precipitation. This chart will be compared with the 2014 chart.
2014- The day in 2014 with the most precipitation observations was May 5. There were 10 hourly weather reports that day (out of a maximum of 24) in which some form of precipitation was observed at or near the station. The month with the most precipitation observations was April, with 53 hourly present weather reports involving some form of precipitation. This 2014 precipitation graph shows more detailed precipitation then the ones before it. The orange shows thunderstorms and the green is precipitation. The y axis shows the amount of weather reports on the day of precipitation. (The amount of precipitation) The longest dry spell was from February 1 to February 5. February was the month with the largest fractions of days observed without precipitation. Snow was very rare here.
Compare with 2010
Compare with 2010
According to the charts, the precipitation decreased by a little during the four years. This might be due to the rise in CO2 causing hot dry air, leaving no moist air to condense.
2010- The hottest day of 2010 was January 30, with a high temperature of 95°F. For reference, on that day the average high temperature is 91°F and the high temperature exceeds 93°F only one day in ten. The hottest month of 2010 was January with an average daily high temperature of 91°F. The longest warm spell was from January 1 to January 13, constituting 13 consecutive days with warmer than average high temperatures. The month of January had the largest fraction of warmer than average days with 77% days with higher than average high temperatures. The coldest day of 2010 was October 23, with a low temperature of 70°F. For reference, on that day the average low temperature is 74°F and the low temperature drops below 72°F only one day in ten. The coldest month of 2010 was October with an average daily low temperature of 75°F. The month of December had the largest fraction of cooler than average days with 48% days with lower than average low temperature. It shows the highs and lows for each month. The red line is the high, and the blue line is the low. This graph will be compared with the 2014 graph.
2014- The hottest day of 2014 was May 4, with a high temperature of 95°F. For reference, on that day the average high temperature is 89°F and the high temperature exceeds 92°F only one day in ten. The hottest month of 2014 was February with an average daily high temperature of 91°F. The longest warm spell was from February 3 to February 27, constituting 25 consecutive days with warmer than average high temperatures. The month of June had the largest fraction of warmer than average days with 87% days with higher than average high temperatures. The coldest day of 2014 was February 7, with a low temperature of 59°F. For reference, on that day the average low temperature is 77°F and the low temperature drops below 74°F only one day in ten. The coldest month of 2014 was July with an average daily low temperature of 75°F. The longest cold spell was from April 10 to April 17, constituting 8 consecutive days with cooler than average low temperatures. The month of April had the largest fraction of cooler than average days with 57% days with lower than average low temperatures. It shows detailed highs and lows.
Compare with 2010
Compare with 2010
This graph is a little different from the 2010 graph. In the 2010 graph, it shows a dip in August, but the dip weakens in 2014. This means it is getting warmer. This is probably due to global warming again.
Climatologist and Step 4 Citations
• http://www.eldis.org/go/home&id=37594&type=Document#.VQo0c47F9qU By: E. L. Molua
2010- The day in 2010 with the most precipitation observations was May 31. There were 24 hourly weather reports that day (out of a maximum of 24) in which some form of precipitation was observed at or near the station. The month with the most precipitation observations was August, with 417 hourly present weather reports involving some form of precipitation. This chart is a 2010 chart of precipitation. It is more detailed than the others, because the orange shows thunderstorms, while the green shows rain.The longest dry spell was from January 24 to February 1. The month with the least precipitation was January, with 68% of days with no observed precipitation.
2014- The day in 2014 with the most precipitation observations was June 18. There were 24 hourly weather reports that day (out of a maximum of 24) in which some form of precipitation was observed at or near the station. The month with the most precipitation observations was October, with 413 hourly present weather reports involving some form of precipitation. This graph is precipitation for 2014. It is more detailed because the orange shows thunderstorms, and the green shows precipitation. You can see it increase and decrease. The longest dry spell was from December 23 to December 30. The month with the least observed precipitation, with at least 61% of the days with no precipitation.
Mount Cameroon Map
This is a graph with more information on the weather of Douala, Cameroon. You can look at it for more information.
Weather reports tell us the weather of any area we choose, along with other things that could be important to what we will need for the day, such as an umbrella or a jacket. It may also help us decide what day to have our party! Meteorlogists help tell us the report, and that in turn helps us understand it. In Nigeria and Cameroon, they also show the sun and how cloudy it would be, which is shown only sometimes in US's reports. In other words, these are the things that the meteorologists tell us on the news.
If you look closely and carefully, you can see that in 2010, the precipitation had more dips in it. The precipitation increased in those times, and now for 2014, there are less dips of precipitation. There are also more hourly reports. This means there is more precipitation in 2014, and that precipitation is increasing.
Compare with 2010