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Summary of Kinetics & Reactor Design

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Transcript of Summary of Kinetics & Reactor Design

KINETICS & REACTOR
DESIGN

chapter 1
MOLE BALANCES
chapter 2
CONVERSION AND REACTOR SIZING
RATE LAWS AND STOICHIOMETRY
chapter 3
general mole balance equation
IN - OUT + GENERATION = ACCUMULATION
Batch reactor
Continuous-Stirred Tank Reactor
Plug flow
reactor
Packed bed
reactor
types of reactors
fixed volume
continuous
flow
Mole balance
Reactor
Batch
CSTR
PFR
PBR
Conversion, X, is the moles of A
reacted per mole A feed.
Batch system
X=
N -N
A0 A
N
AO
Flow system
X=
F -F
F
A0 A
A0
For reactors in series with no side streams
X =
total moles of A reacted up to point i
moles A fed to the first reactor
i
Series of CSTR and PFR
Conversion, X
For
irreversible reactions
, the maximum value of conversion, X, is that for complete conversion, i.e. X=1.0.

For
reversible reactions
, the maximum value of conversion, X, is the equilibrium conversion, i.e. X=Xe.
Batch :
Flow :
Design Equations
Reactor Sizing
Given -rA=f(X), we can size any reactor using
Levenspiel Plot.
Space time
The
Space time
, tau, is obtained by dividing the reactor volume by the volumetric flow rate entering the reactor.
PART 1
RATE LAWS
PART 2
STOICHIOMETRY
A
rate law
describes the behavior of a reaction. The
rate of a reaction
is a function of temperature (through the rate constant) and concentration.

RELATIVE RATES OF REACTION
POWER LAW MODEL
RATE CONSTANT, k
Elementary Rate Laws
A reaction follows an elementary rate law if and only if the (iff) stoichiometric coefficients are the same as the individual reaction order of each species.
eg : Rate law for

would be
Non-elementary Rate Laws
then the reaction is said to be 2nd order in A, 1st order in B, and 3rd order overall.
If rate law for non-elementary reaction
is
REVERSIBLE REACTIONS
The net rate of formation of any species is equal to its rate of formation in the forward reaction plus its rate of formation in the reverse reaction:
At equilibrium, ratenet=~ 0 and the rate law must reduce to an equation that is thermodynamically consistent with the equilibrium constant for the reaction.
To set up stoichiometry tables, we use A as our basis of calculation. C = f(x) is combined with rate law to obtain -r =f(x)
A
BATCH SYSTEM
STOICHIOMETRIC TABLE
FLOW SYSTEM
Flow gas phase
FLOW SYSTEM
STOICHIOMETRIC TABLE
i
chapter 4
MOLE BALANCES
Solution Conversion Algorithm
1. Mole balance and design equation
2. Rate Law
3. Stoichiometry
4. Combine
5. Evaluate
A. Graphically
B Numerical
C. Analytical
D. Software Packages
Measures other than Conversion
1. Gases :

2. Liquids :
Membrane Reactors
Mole Balance
Rate Law
Semibatch Reactor
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