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Spiral of Silence

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Yiwen Zhang

on 25 April 2013

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Transcript of Spiral of Silence

Literatures
Research 1. Huang, H. "A Cross-Cultural Test of the Spiral of Silence." International Journal of Public Opinion Research 17.3 (2005): 1-25. Web. 9 Feb 2010. The Spiral of Silence Theory The Spiral of Silence
Noelle-Neumann, E. (1974). The spiral of silence: A theory of public opinion. Journal of Communication, 24(2), 43-51.
Individuals will not express their opinions if they feel their opinions are in the minority.
5 Elements that are linked to the process of public opinion
“To combat these fears, we face pressure to conform in order to obtain a sense of belonging”(Noelle-Neumann, 1984). Collectivistc Society value A collectivistic society is a culture of people who make decisions based on what is good for the people, all the people, of their nation.
A collectivistic society is a "WE" society, not a "ME" society.
In a collectivistic nation, it is improper to put "YOURself" or "YOUR" feelings before others. Conclusion & Discussion Culture has a noticeable impact on one’s willingness to speak out.
Communication style have also been proven to have an effect on individuals, and shows that some people may be silent because they fear communication and not just the idea of isolation.
Moy and colleagues (2001):
Identified as an individual’s “micro-climates” can directly influence whether or not an opinion is expressed?
Could cultural factor be considered as Moderation Effect? References Huang, H. "A Cross-Cultural Test of the Spiral of Silence." International Journal of Public Opinion Research 17.3 (2005): 1-25. Web. 9 Feb 2010. Kim, S. ( 2012) Testing Fear of Isolation as a Causal Mechanism: Spiral of Silence and Genetically Modified (GM) Foods in South Korea. International Journal of Public Opinion Research Vol. 24 No. 3
Martin, J. N., & Nakayama, T. N. (2010). Intercultural communication in contexts (5th ed.). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.
Matthes, J., Rios-Morrison, K., & Schemer, C. (2010). A spiral of silence for some: Attitude certainty and the expression of political minority opinions. Communication Research, 37(6), 774-880.
Moy, P., D. & Stamm, K. (2001) The spiral of silence and public opinion on affirmative action. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 78(1), 7-25.
Noelle-Neumann, E. (1974). The spiral of silence: A theory of public opinion. Journal of Communication, 24, 43-51.
Noelle-Neumann, E. (1993). The spiral of silence: Public opinion—Our social skin (2nd ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Ross,C.(2007). Considering and communicating more world views:New directions for the spiral of silence.Conference Papers--National Communication Association,1.
Waipeng, L., Detenber, B. H., Willnat, L., Aday, S., & Graf, J. (2004). A Cross-cultural Test ofthe Spiral of Silence Theory in Singapore and the United States. Asian Journal of Communication, 14(2), 205-226. Connection: Cross cultural studies One of criticism of Spiral of Silence Theory IN COLLECTIVISTIC SOCIETY 4. Matthes, J., Rios-Morrison, K., & Schemer, C. (2010). A spiral of silence for some: Attitude certainty and the expression of political minority opinions. Communication Research, 37(6), 774-880. "This article analyzes the results of a telephone survey about two political issues each regarded in Taiwan and the United States.
The hypotheses tested were the beliefs that the United States is an "individualistic" society, while Taiwan is a "collectivist" society.
Overall, Americans were more likely to speak out than Taiwanese. In Taiwan, future support and belief of society played a large role in likeliness to voice an opinion, and support that the activation of the Spiral of Silence is in effect. 2.Ross,C.(2007). Considering and communicating more world views:New directions for the spiral of silence.Conference Papers--National Communication Association,1. More cultural and critical studies to ensure more world views are heard.
culture also significantly impacts one’s willingness to express an opinion.
Not every culture holds freedom of speech in as high regard as the United States, and in some cultures, open expression of ideas is forbidden
willingness to speak out in Singapore and the United States. As such, this paper found support for the spiral of silence in Singapore but not the United States. 5. Kim, S. ( 2012) Testing Fear of Isolation as a Causal Mechanism: Spiral of Silence and Genetically Modified (GM) Foods in South Korea. International Journal of Public Opinion Research Vol. 24 No. 3 South Korea may represent a great opportunity to test the spiral of silence effect:
Highly individualistic cultures tend to tolerate lower levels of conformity, one may find a greater spiral of silence effect in a collectivistic culture, such as South Korea, where public self-image is valued more than private self-image.
As the spiral of silence predicts, there were small but statistically significant relationships between respondents’ perceptions of opinion climates and their willingness to talk in public about genetically modified (GM) foods. 3. Waipeng, L., Detenber, B. H., Willnat, L., Aday, S., & Graf, J. (2004). A Cross-cultural Test ofthe Spiral of Silence Theory in Singapore and the United States. Asian Journal of Communication, 14(2), 205-226. Telephone polls in two countries about how likely they would be to discuss publicly two controversial issues: interracial marriage and equal rights for homosexuals.
The findings provide partial support for the spiral of silence hypothesis in Singapore, but not in the United States.
Culturally bound pattern of communication are likely to be good predictors of people's willingness to speak out publicly.
The concepts of individualism and collectivism are significant for the spiral of silence theory. The freedom to express one’s political opinion is one of the fundamental principles of modern democracy.
Future spiral of silence research should not only observe the direct, main effect of opinion climate but also focus on moderation.
Could Cultural factor be considered as Moderation Effect? Threat of isolation Fear of isolation Willingness to speak out Quasi-statistical sense Pluralistic Ignorance Spiral of silence- Wikepedia "People choosing not to speak out against public opinion is culture. The culture that a person lives in greatly affects their willingness to speak out. " Have A Nice Weekend! Yiwen Zhang
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