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Pipe Organs

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by

Susie Barr

on 3 April 2011

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Transcript of Pipe Organs

PIPE ORGANS How do they work? Pipe organs produce sound by allowing air to flow through the pipes at the top of the organ. Most modern organs have their own wind generators, but a few are left that operate on a bellows There are FOUR major parts: The Console The Wind Generator The Pipes The Action Reed Pipes Flue Pipes About a fifth of the pipes used in a typical organ are Reed Pipes
Reed pipes use a tiny sheet of metal at the mouth of the pipe that vibrates to produce sound The other four fifths of the pipes in a typical organ are flue pipes
Flue pipes don't use a reed; the sound is produced by air passing the opening in the tube Materials Pipes can be made out of wood or metal Wooden pipes are slightly more difficult to make, and therefore less common, because the wood has to adjust to its climate for 6 months so it doesn't crack when it is shaped into a pipe Metal pipes are more commonly used for organs
They are made by bending sheets around wooden forms. The bent metal is then cut to a specified length
Tin or lead alloys are usually used and the mixtures of each vary because of their effect on the sound of the pipe Keyboards Most organs have anywhere from 2 to 5 keyboards, and one key is often connected to multiple pipes Foot pedals Stops Most organs have one set of foot pedals, though the number of pedals in one set may vary. Small organs don't have any foot pedals because they usually only have one "rank" of pipes The stops are contolled by the foot pedals. By pushing on a foot pedals, stops are raised, allowing air to flow through a "rank" of pipes (There are four types) Mechnical Electric Pneumatic Electropneumatic Mechanical action systems use cranks, rollers, and levers to manipluate the stops Pneumatic systems use air pressure controlled by the console to manipulate the stops Electric systems use electromagnets controlled by the console to move the stops Electropneumatic systems use electroagnets controlled by the console to manipulate the air pressure that activates the stops How's it made? All organs are custom made to work best in the room they are meant to be played in
Small pipe organs can be built off-site and transported to their final destinations
Larger organs have to be built on-site, often occupying auditoriums and concert halls for several months A Brief History Hydraulus Invented by Ctesibius, a greek engineer, in the 3rd century B.C.
The air tank was placed in a tank of water, so when more air was added to the tank, the pressure of the water forced enough air out to produce a note 1st century A.D. The bellows system was developed Medieval pipe organs The Organ could only play diatonic notes, so it only had the white keys that we see on pianos today 1500 A.D. Germany produced the first modern pipe organ and became the leader in organ making for the next 300 years 1800's Orchestral music becomes popular, pipe organs begin to fall out of favor Teleharmonium Constructed in 1904 by Thadddeus Cahill, the teleharmonium was the first attempt at an electric organ The Hammond Organ Created in 1934 by Laurens Hammond, the Hammond Organ was the most successful pipe organ note-dimension ratios Mouth width to pipe diameter The width of the "mouth" or opening in an organ pipe, is approximately 1/4 the diameter of the pipe Mouth position to note frequency and pipe length Open Pipe The position of the mouth on an open pipe is equal to:

550/ 2 ^(length x frequency) Closed Pipe In a closed pipe the mouth height is equal to:

(3.018 -0.233 x length x frequency) ^5 Summary The pipe organ preceded many of todays modern instruments.
For example: Reed instruments operate on the same principle as Reed pipes in an organ. The only differences are the scale and materials used The paino is basically a combination of an organ and a violin with its keyboard, foot pedals, and strings that produce sound Because of the pipe organ, we have a better understanding of how sound waves travel through tubes, giving instrument makers and designers enough information to create the instruments we see today The sounds of classic pipe organs also make it possible to create the sound bites needed for the new electronic keyboards 33,000 pipes, 455 ranks; 22 sections; 12 rooms
1225 stops
2 consoles; seven keyboards and five keyboards
smallest is 3/16 of an inch; largest is 32 feet in length
Atlantic City,
New Jersey
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