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Akshat Gupta

on 4 August 2015

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India has a wide range of textiles of varied designs and manufactured by numerous techniques when compared to other countries in the world. The styles depend upon the location of the place, climatic conditions, cultural influences and trade contacts.
The dry and hot clime of the Southern states, which comprises Tamilnadu, Karnataka and Andhra, favors rich and luminous colored silks.

Cotton Fabric
Silk Weaves
Kasuti Embroidery
Banjara embroidery
Kancheepuram Weaves
The cotton saris particularly of West Bengal are called Jamdani and they follow the traditional patterns. Twisted yarn is closely woven together and so the saris are more lasting. This inlay technique is fully indigenous. This Jamdani technique of patterning is found in the cotton centers of Venkatagiri in Andhra, and Kodialkarruppar in Tamilnadu.
The Illkal saris of Karnataka and the Narayanpet saris of Andhra have saris with tiny checks, which combine complimentary colors together. They are woven in dark earthen colors. In Illkal, the naturally grown indigo is used for dyeing purposes.

Andhra has a rich variety in cotton saris. Gadwall produce saris of thick cotton body mostly in checks with a contrasting silk border and pallu worked in gold. Venkatagiri place in Andhra manufactures saris of the Jamdani technique with stylized motifs woven in half cotton and half gold threads.

South India has a class of its own in silk saris. Heavy lustrous silk with broad borders and elaborate pallus are made here. Contrasting colors are used to produce a harmonious blend of colors. Traditionally the pattern is a part of the woven fabric and not an extra weft. The checks and strips are woven into the warp and weft.

The fabric is painted with molten wax and then dyed in cold dyes after which the cloth is washed in hot water. The wax melts and the pattern emerges. The effect of this resist technique is soft and subdued and the outlines are not clearly defined.

The Kasuti embroidery of Karnataka is a stylized form with stitches based on the texture of the fabric. Negi, Gavanti and the Menthi are the three different types of stitches used Bead Works.

Transparent and semi-transparent beads are used to produce a remarkable line of embroidery. Unlike other places where the beads are stitched on cloth to form a pattern, here they are used with no backing material at all. A large number of different beads and a needle and thread are the only materials with which the craftsmen create chaklas, door hangings, belts, bags, pot covers and a variety of other things.

Banjara embroidery is noted for its lively decoration cowry shells, coins, cotton and woolen tassels weighted with lead and glass beads and mirror-work are all used to adorn their textiles. Banjaras make beautiful, quilted rumals, bags and purses, usually on brown or sometimes blue cloth. Patterning is sometimes confined to quilting stitches, but more usually cotton threads are laid on in contrasting geometric patterns, and then couched down. Further south, the Banjara work is done using woolen or cotton thread and a great repertoire of stitches. These are used to make bags, purses, waist bands and a rectangular piece of embroidery edged with cowry shells, which hangs down from a head ring called an indhoni on which the women balance pots of water.
It is a type of hand-painted or block-printed cotton textile.
It is The making of any cotton fabric patterned through the medium of vegetable dyes by free-hand painting and block-printing, produced in many different regions of India. In places where the fabric is block printed the Kalam (pen) is used to draw finer details and for application of some colours.
This style flowered around temples and their patronage and so had an almost religious identity - scrolls, temple hangings, chariot banners etc.
The silk sarees are woven with fine silk with contrasting border & pallav woven with a variety of zari motifs such as rudraksham etc.
Patola weaves are practised in various regions with slight variations based on local taste.
In Patola weaving the warp and weft threads are tied and dyed before it is woven. The warp thread is first stretched on the loom and the design is marked on this. Areas are tied and dyed.
The tie & dye process is done in various colours from lighter to darker colour shade. The weft threads are fixed on a prepared frame placed at an angle & the same process is carried out. The weft threads are thrown over the warp & woven using long bamboo needles to hold the design. Sometimes only the warp or weft is tie-dyed & then it is known as single patola.
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