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U.S History-World War I

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Abby Pickard

on 5 September 2012

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Transcript of U.S History-World War I

World War I Beginning of the War Trouble with Mexico Poncho Villa Mexican Rebel Leader
Popular with Poor People
Supported by the USA
Well-Trained Soldier
Felt Betrayed by USA
Attacked USA Soldiers
Chases by USA (never found)
Killed by His Own People USA helped rebels so that they could replace certain government people so that Mexico would do what the USA wanted them to do. Rebellion occurred in Mexico Ferdinand Assassination Francis Ferdinand arch-duke
assassinated by Gavrilo Princip
From Austria-Hungry Gavrilo Princip Assassinated Ferdinand Austria-Hungry tortured him until he told them that Serbia sent him -Out of Bullets Tried to Commit Suicide -Threw Up Pill -Jumped off a bridge into shallow water(broke legs) Died in Prison because sick Serbia told Gavrilo Princip and others to kill Francis Ferdinand. When Ferdinand was in a parade, there were alot of attempts to kill him by Princip's men. Since people were injured in the process, Ferdinand was going to go to the hospital to see them. Ferdinand's driver took a wrong turn into an alley. Gavrilo happened to be in alley. He used two shots to kill Ferdinand and his wife. USA Joins the War After getting information from Princip, Austria-Hungry declared war on Serbia Strike #1 1914- Great Britain and Germany find out and try to stop USA trade. USA provides both sides of war with weapons /material 1. British use blockades to stop ships
2. Germany uses Submarines aka U-Boats to destroy ships
3. Both countries violated national law (stopping trade with "neutral" country) USA profits from war Strike #2 1915- May: Lusitanaia (passenger ship) was sunk by German U-boats -1,200 people died (120 Americans)
-Germans very proud of what they did Strike #3 1917- Zimmerman note-Germany wanted Mexico to help them defeat USA (promised Mexico land we took from them) Britain warned USA about note USA president, Wilson, declared war on Germany 1916- March: Sussex(French ship) was sunk by Germans -Germans promise not to sink anymore merchant/passenger ships without a warning. 1917- February: German break promise to not sink any merchant/passenger ships USA Citizens' Opinions on World War I Business Owners Good Things: Earn money on weapons, hospital items, ect. Bad Things: Lose male workers
High taxes Farmers Good Things: Make money off food grown for soldiers Get paid to go to war Bad Things: If drafted, might have to leave family and farm High School Students Good Things Get to go to war if they have always wanted to
Could come home as a hero
Get payed
Serve country
Earn respect Bad Things: Forced to go to war if drafted
Quit school
Leave family and friends Immigrants Good Things: More job opportunities Prove themselves to be good USA citizens Bad Things: May not get into USA Small wages Looked down upon Get drafted Politicians (Presidents, Senators, etc.) Good Things: Could advance career if do good during the war Make stronger allies Bad Things: Hardly any men doing work
Women doing jobs instead of taking care of kids
Not safe for children to be alone
Could lose job if they don't do a good job Causes of the Great War Nationalism- Pride in one's country; Patriotic Why Would this Cause War?- One country think they are the best so they try to take over other countries What Countries Were Involved?- All European countries Militarism- Glorification of the Military Why Would this Cause War?- One country competes with other countries to prove their army is the best; building a bigger and better army causes other countries to become nervous. What Countries were Involved?- Almost all European countries plus USA Alliances- two or more countries that work, trade, and fight together Why Would this Cause War?- If one country fights another the alliances would also fight; get more aggressive What Alliances? What Countries?- Germany, Italy, etc. vs. Hungry-Austria, USA, etc. Assassination- Someone kills a great leader/important person in order to change something they don't like. Why Would this Cause War?- The country who lost the important person would feel anger toward the person and/or country who assassinated that person. Who was Killed and Why?- Francis Ferdinand and his wife Sophia; Serbia believed Bosnia belonged to them instead of Austria-Hungry The Great War Terms Stalemate- no clear victory; continue to fight Western Front- Critical battle front in France; whoever wins there wins the war Machine Gun- 600 bullets a minute Artillery- Long-range cannon Poison Gas- killed many soldiers, no smell or color Tanks- Goes over rough ground and wire barricades of "no mans land" Trench Warfare- Soldiers hid in trenches to be safe form artillery fire; rats lived in trenches and cause soldiers to get sick/have lice; soldiers were afraid to look over the side; trenches were wet and muddy; soldiers were often killed with snipers when they did look over the side Over the Top- Climbing into no-man's land to attack enemy No Man's Land- Between enemy lines; nothing remains; sent over trenches; wasteland Airplanes- Bombing; fighting; reconnaissance; aces-pilots that has had at least 5 kills; dogfight-2 planes fighting each other; Zeppelin-used to spy Important People of World War I Pilots Politicians Other Important People John J. Pershing- Nickname was "Blackjack"; General; American Expeditionary Force (A.E.F); pilot; Poncho Villa Billy Mitchell- General of air force; distinguished Service Cross and Service Medal; ace; suspended from rank for 5 years because he did not agree with war Eddie Rickenbacker- Top fighter pilot; 26 kills; Medal of Honor; ace Manfred von Richtofen- Was a soldier before becoming a pilot; 80 kills; commander of the Flying Circus Woodrow Wilson- President during WWI; declared war on Germany; 28th President Herbert Hoover- Food Administrator; Secretary of Commerce; had people save certain food Paul von Hindenburg- President of Weimar Republic; caused Hitler to first come into power Arthur Zimmerman- From Germany; thought of Zimmerman Note; German Foreign Secretary Bernard Baruch- Advisory Commission to Council of National Defense; Paris Peace Conference George Patton- Went after Poncho Villa; American Expeditionary Force (A.E.F); 1st Captain of Tanks Corps, then Lieutenant, then full Colonel Alvin York- Medal of Honor; fought even though it was against religion (Mennonite) Merle Hay- First Iowan killed and one of the first 3 killed in the war; trench soldier Eugene v. Debs- Protested against the war; arrested and stayed in prison for 10 years; continued protesting in jail along with running for president Good Luck With the Test! :) Sources: Mr. Cavanagh
World War I Websites
U.S.A History Book yes i know this is not exactly how you site stuff but i couldn't remember the website we used in middle school to site stuff :) War On the Home Front Building an Army and Resistance to the Draft: Army- Much smaller than Europe's; Wilson encouraged us and wanted Congress to pass the Selective Service Act; June 5, 1917-more than 9.6 million Americans registered; July-Great National Lottery; 24 million registered and 2.8 million were drafted; 4.8 million in uniform Resistance to the Draft- Some men did not cooperate with the draft=jail; many tried to avoid draft; 12% never responded to draft letters; conscious objectors. Constructing a War Economy and Sharing Public Opinion: Public Opinion- Committee on Public Information; convince people that war effort was a cause; education and advertizing; dramatized enemy and needs; prejudice against Irish and Germans Economy- Council of National Defense made federal administrative agencies for war effort; Individual-food, coal, petroleum, and railways; government decides what crops to grow, what industries produce, and how to move products; World Industry Board; Bernard Baruch; no competition The Government Cracks Down on Dissent and Prejudice towards Germany Government- Espionage Act; punishment=up to $10,000 fine and 20 years in jail; Sedition Act; Schneck vs. USA Prejudice- Mean to Germans; stopped teaching them in public schools; changed German names of items; no German music; Germans gave up their government; were harassed, beaten, and even killed if from Germany or had German accent or language Women and African American Roles Women- African American- Mexicans- Opposed War, but most supported it, war gave them right to vote along with other things; took male jobs; Red Cross; American Women's Hospital Service; 19th Amendment New opportunities; showed that they serve America; segregated in war; Great Migration; better jobs, better future for children; racism; people in the South used persuasion and violence to make them stay Went across border; went when harvest time; went back or stayed in USA; mostly in California Selective Service Act- May 1917, draft for young men for army Conscious Objectors- People who can't fight because of religious views Committee on Public Information- teaches public about cause and nature of the war; George Creek World Industries Board- No competition; Bernard Baruch Espionage Act - Sedition Act- postal workers can ban treasonable/rebellious newspapers, magazines, or mail 1918; no disloyal, bad, abusive language against the government, constitution, or military Schneck vs. USA- 1919; Schneck says no to draft; sends letters to others, telling them to not go into the draft; Pleaded 1st Amendment but lost 19 Amendment- 1919; women earn the right to vote Great Migration- 1910-1920; Northern African American population increased by 1.2 million End of WWI Wilson's Plan for Peace Europe's Plan for Peace Name- What Did it Say?- 14 Points "peace without victory" January 1918
Freedom of Seas
Free trade
Move toward ending colonism
General reduction of amendments
League of Nations
Name- What Did it Say?- Treaty of Versailles Germany pays for reparations
Split countries/lost land
Germany blamed for War
League of Nations Internationalists Isolationists Alliances
Our idea
Make $
Work problems
Showing off power Stay out of other's business
Not know problems
Back up Allies
No 14 points
Not loose as many soldiers League of Nations- guarantee political independence; territorial integrity to all
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