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Know how to support clients who take part in exercise & physical activities, Level 2 Fitness Instructor

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Alexandru Mardan

on 13 December 2013

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Transcript of Know how to support clients who take part in exercise & physical activities, Level 2 Fitness Instructor

Unit 1 Know how to support clients who take part in exercise & physical activities
Outcome 2
Understand how to
address barriers to
exercise/physical activity
that clients experience
Outcome 3
Understand how to support clients to adhere to exercise and physical activities
Outcome 4
Understand how to provide ongoing customer service to clients
Unit Aims
By the end of this unit the learner will understand
how to:

•Form effective working relationships with clients

•Address barriers to exercise that clients experience

•Support clients to adhere to exercise

•Provide ongoing customer service to clients

Really? Discuss
Who are our future clients?
Evidence for this unit is generated through the candidate completing an OCR –
set worksheet
which is then assessed by the centre assessor.
The worksheet:
•Must be the learner’s own work and group completion of the worksheet is not permitted
•Can be completed on a continuous basis or as part of a summative assessment
•Can be completed away from the course (i.e. as a homework task)
Outcome 1
Understand how to form effective working relationships with clients
Explain WHY it's important to form effective working relationships with clients
To develop mutual trust between the instructor and client
To set out clearly defined roles and responsibilities between the client and instructor
To encourage openness, honesty, empathy and an unconditional positive regard
To comply with legal and ethical requirements such as; Data Protection Act and Reps Code of Ethical Practice
To encourage motivation and enthusiasm
To improve customer retention, adherence, satisfaction and success
How to build positive relationships with clients?
• professional conduct – how one dresses and behaves
• respect for the clients’ diversity – respecting individual differences
• reflection of equal opportunity – the use of language and communication
• equality – treating each person as an equal, protecting people from discrimination
• inclusion and exclusion of a client in an exercise programme as a result of screening
• being punctual – arriving on time and keeping to timetable slots

What needs to be considered in relation to the professional boundaries that exist between a fitness instructor and a participant?
Understanding who is at risk
Understanding what constitutes a boundary violation (e.g. touching clients without permission, confidentiality)
Understanding the content of the REPs Code of Ethical Practice
Knowing when it is appropriate to refer a client to another health professional such as a; counsellor/physiotherapist/sports injuries expert etc.

How to build TRUST?
Group task!
5 minutes
What are the personal qualities for an instructor to be able to build a positive relationship with his/her clients?
What different communication skills can be used to assist with motivation?
Consider the advantages/disadvantages of each

(questionnaires, handouts, posters, email, websites, social networking)

(telephone, face to face, language, voice intonation, accent, dialect)

(body language, gesture, eye contact, facial expressions, posture)

rapport= mutual respect and influence
see he world from the customer point of view and use effective communication!

Build rapport through effective communication
The importance of communication
• it is essential to the professional relationship. We must appreciate that people communicate in different ways and we must identify the method and mimic it
• communication is a primary skill needed to convey your knowledge to other people
• it is the key to keeping or losing clients

Active Listening
leaning forward
using positive facial expressions
eye contact
developing the art of paraphrasing, reflecting, summarising, focusing
reacting to the senses i.e. sight, touch
being aware of the client’s personal space
being warm and friendly
avoiding crossing arms when interacting as it can appear hostile
avoiding aggressive acts such as pointing and standing over the client
using hand gestures
eye contact
Body Language
Tonality and Use of Language
matching the clients tone and pitch
using rhythm
ensuring an ‘honesty’ in the voice
ensuring richness, warmth and volume are appropriate
matching customer words (using the same words and paraphrasing)
using appropriate language
Can you recognise and discuss potential barriers to effective communication?
Poor listening skills and barriers to listening
Inappropriate non-verbal communication – body language, facial expressions
Set pattern of thinking (prejudice, preconceived ideas)
Making assumptions/labelling/stereotyping
Lack of trust
Lack of clarity
Personal style
Social/cultural differences (age, gender, social class, ethnicity, language)
Learning difficulties

Explain the importance of valuing equality and diversity when working with clients?
Professional boundaries
Equal opportunity
Non-judgemental approach
Recognising different cultural diversities that exist and how they may impact on the content of the session

Key points
Effective visual/verbal communication skills are vital for maintaining a positive relationship with the client
Body language can build or break-down barriers to communication
Listening, clarifying and demonstrating empathy are important factors to effective communication
People have personal boundaries in relation to proximity to others and this should be respected.

WHY is it important for a client to take personal responsibility for their own fitness and motivation?
Why to empower clients?

For achievement of their goals
To increase activities in their daily living
To maintain their programme
To adhere to their exercise programme
WHY is it important for client and organisation to provide a high level of customer care?
enhances their experience
helps improve self-esteem
helps achieve goals
aids in exercise adherence

helps with repeat custom
the reputation of the business (organisation) is enhanced
profit growth
ensures a happy working environment
Identify various barriers why people fail to participate in exercise and physical activities.
Group Task!
What are some of the typical barriers to exercise that clients communicate?
Physical (e.g. injury/disability, too old, health issues)
Emotional (e.g. ‘I’m not the type’, embarrassment)
Motivational (e.g. Lacking energy, I won’t enjoy it)
Time (e.g. ‘I haven’t got the time, work commitments)
Availability (‘I can’t afford it’, ‘I don’t have the clothes/equipment’)
Gender differences (differences in child-care and work arrangements)
Clients are more likely to enjoy and adhere to their programme if:
The session is fun and engaging
Includes exercises the client enjoys
Omits exercises the client dislikes
What type of incentives and rewards can strengthen and encourage adherence?
•Health benefits of regular exercise
•External rewards e.g. prizes for achieving goals
•Internal rewards e.g. feel good factor
•Social events
•Gym challenges
•Taster sessions
•Review sessions
What type of strategies could be adopted to overcome barriers to exercise?
•Increasing client’s confidence (rewards, praise, social support)
•Agree SMART goals both short and long term
•Promote autonomy and interdependence
•Recognise the role of the ‘relationship’ as a key determinant
•Plan interventions to increase the likelihood of participation
•Encourage social support (friends, family, other clients, buddy system, group exercise, personal trainers)
•Teaching approach (Learning style, verbal and non verbal communication, equal opportunities)
A = Percentage who gave the factor a high personal goal score
B = Percentage who gave high score on achievement through exercise
Source: Allied Dunbar National Fitness Survey, 1992
Motivating factors for exercise among men and women aged 16 - 69
Key points
Patterns of behaviour are developed over a long period of time for adults
There are various theories on all aspects of behaviour
It is recommended to consider a range of factors that will affect an individual when developing an approach
The major factors affecting participation in activity are demographic, environmental and influential people
Factors for consideration
Clarify client expectations -‘What is your goal?’
Establish realistic expectations -‘When do you want to achieve this by?’
Establish the client’s previous exercise history, exercise preferences and needs – ‘What skills do you need to learn?’
Plan for relapse- ‘What may stop you achieving your goal?’
Set appropriate and realistic goals – What will you need to change in order to reach your goal?’
Provide feedback
Establish a sense of self-responsibility and use of social support system – ‘Who will support/not support your efforts?’
Approaches/Strategies to behaviour change
Increase instructor's awareness of client's thought processes

Rational-Emotive Therapy
Motivational Interviewing
Cognitive Behavioural Therapy
Solutions Focused Therapy
Neuro-Linguistic Programming
Most common Models of Behaviour Change
Increase instructor's awareness of client's thought process

Theory of Reasoned Action (Ajzen and Fisbein, 1975)
Theory of Planned Behaviour (Azjen, 1988)
The Health Belief Model (Rosenstock, 1966)
Health Locus of Control (Wollaston, Kaplan and Maides, 1976)
Social Cognitive Theory (Bandura, 1977a)
Transtheoretical Model (Prochaska and DiClemente, 1982)
extremely complex!
Theory of Reasoned Action
Be aware of the client's health locus of control!
Health Believe Model
:"people's judgements of their capabilities to organise and execute courses of action required to attain designated types of performances. It is concerned not with the skills one has but with judgements of what one can do with whatever skills one possesses" (Bandura, 1986, p. 391).
Social Cognitive Theory
Added a temporal component
Smokers pass through several stages.

Transtheoretical Model (Stages of Change)
Key points
Work reasons, loss of interest and lack of time are some of the main factors to ceasing participation
Main barriers include; feeling exercise is not for them, I need to relax in my spare time, I have no one to exercise with
The main motivational factors are; to feel in good shape, to improve/maintain health and feel a sense of achievement
Key points
An individual’s resistance to behaviour change can be caused by the approach being used, work/family commitments
The instructor should always listen and demonstrate empathy to encourage rapport with their client
Setting an appropriate action plan is key to success
The client should feel fully involved in the whole process to encourage adherence and ownership

we cannot coerce clients to change
pre-contemp & contemplation persuasion is not an option
learn from relapse
importance of self efficacy
Stages of change & recommendations
How to promote health & fitness
offer new experiences
give regular, individual feedback
improve understanding by doing mini-lectures or workshops
produce handouts and leaflets
teach good technique from the start to give confidence
provide a positive and encouraging environment
recognise achievements
support through plateaus
develop an eye for behavioural changes
If you aim at nothing, you'll hit nothing!

: do 10 chin ups
: 10
: agreed both client & instructor
: long/short term
Time framed
: by Christmas
Strategy to help clients adhere to exercise & healthy lifestyle

What type of goals will encourage a client to participate and adhere to a programme of activity/exercise?
Physical (fitness/weight management, feeling fitter)
Psychological (mental and emotional wellness, stress levels, feeling a sense of achievement)
Lifestyle (health, mobility, managing medical conditions, getting outdoors)
Social (making friends, developing social network)
Adherence (changing behaviour and developing positive habits)
Recognise a range of factors that can motivate/deter clients from taking part

What is customer service?
Customer Service
is the
to consistently meet the customers’ needs, wants and expectations.


expanding the definition of service
knowing who the customers are
forming positive relationships
developing a customer-friendly attitude

How to develop a customer - friendly attitude
: consideration (always offer for help, be honest, don't make promises unless they can be kept
: active listening
: responsiveness (respond in person, add something extra, deal with complaints promptly
: empathy (non judgemental, understand customer needs
Where can you source relevant information to meet the client’s needs?
Researching appropriate forms of exercise for the client according to their needs (e.g. reliable/recommended internet sites, exercise libraries, course provider manual etc.)
Asking for customer feedback
10 simple ways to create good customer impression
1. Greet each customer personally
2. Try to learn names
3. Smile and be polite
4. Use eye contact
5. Consider how you are speaking
6. Use good grammar
7. Be optimistic
8. Give the customer your undivided attention
9. Establish rapport
10. Face the customer and use the ‘active listening’ technique
"The customer is always RIGHT"
Handle the client complaint positively and to an agreed procedure.
listen and take ownership of the complaint
always be polite
remain calm and never enter into an argument
record the complaint (fill in complaint form), acknowledge receipt of the complaint and reassure the customer
offer a point of contact, advise the client of possible solutions or alternatives, ensure the client is pacified before leaving
inform relevant persons of the problem
feed back to the client
Dealing with an angry customer takes practice. Be assertive, empathetic and, most importantly, non-confrontational. Pay careful attention to tone of voice and verbal and body language – be assertive but never aggressive
Complaints/Use of language
aggressive vs assertive
“don’t...speak to me like that”
“with that attitude...how do you expect to resolve this”
“shut up...otherwise I will not continue this conversation”
“I’d prefer it if...you didn’t speak to me in that way”
“I understand your frustration...could you calm down so that we can begin to resolve this”
“if you persist in using bad language...I will be unable to continue this conversation
Take the
out of the situation

: hear them out (listen to their complaint without interruption)
: empathise with their situation (do not be defensive)
: apologise
: take action (help solve the problem, with support if necessary)
Complete the Unit
To complete the Unit you must fill in the
entitled "Know how to support clients who take part in exercise and physical activities"
By the end of this unit the learner will understand
how to:

•Form effective working relationships with clients

•Address barriers to exercise that clients experience

•Support clients to adhere to exercise

•Provide ongoing customer service to clients
Full transcript