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Chapter 8 - Style and Delivery in Public Speaking

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Elsa Garcia

on 8 April 2015

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Transcript of Chapter 8 - Style and Delivery in Public Speaking

The Elements of Public Speaking
Chapter 8 - Style and Delivery in Public Speech
Prof. Elsa García
The Steps in Public Speaking Preparation and Delivery
Step 8:
Word Your Speech
Oral Style is...
Different from written style.
Listeners hear a speech only once.
Speech must be instantly intelligible.
Shorter, simpler, more familiar words.
Choosing Words
Clarity:
Be economical.
Use specific terms and numbers.
Use signposts.
Use short, familiar terms.
Carefully assess idioms.
Vividness
Active verbs.
Strong verbs.
Figures of speech.
Imagery.
Visual Imagery
Create ‘word’ pictures of people or objects.
Use auditory imagery.
Use tactile imagery.
Figures of Speech
Alliteration
Hyperbole
Irony
Metaphor
Synecdoche
Metonymy
Antithesis
Simile
Personification
Rhetorical Questions

Appropriateness
Level of formality.
Avoid unfamiliar terms.
Avoid slang.
Avoid ethnic expressions.
Use personal pronouns
Use questions
Create immediacy
Use personal examples
Address audience as “you”
Reinforce or complement audience

Personal Style
Create Immediacy
Refer directly to commonalities between you and the audience
Refer to shared experiences and goals
Eliminate weakeners
Avoid hesitations
Avoid using too many intensifiers
Avoid tag questions
Avoid self-critical statements
Slang and vulgar expressions
Vary intensity as appropriate
Avoid bromides and clichés
Forcefulness / Power
Phrasing Sentences
Use short sentences
Use direct sentences
Use active sentences
Use positive sentences
Vary types of sentences

Step 9:
Rehearse Your Speech
Rehearse Your Speech
Rehearse as a whole
Time speech
Approximate actual situation
See yourself as speaker
Incorporate changes
Rehearse often

Undertake a Long Term Delivery Improvement Program
3. Seek additional feedback
4. Consult resources for practice exercises on volume, rate, pitch, and quality
5. See a speech clinician
6. Seek professional help if you’re uncomfortable with any aspect of your voice or bodily action
1. Seek feedback
2. Learn the differences between effective and ineffective patterns

Step 10:
Present Your Speech
Effective Presentation:
Comfortable
Consistent
Interesting
Present Your Speech
Methods of Presentation
Impromptu
From manuscript
From memory
Extemporaneously
Making Your Presentation
More Effective
Be natural
Use presentation style to reinforce your message
Dress appropriately
Vary your presentation
Be conversational
Be expressive
Avoid common mistakes
Use notes appropriately
Voice
Volume
Rate
Pitch
Articulation and Pauses
Articulation
Omission
Substitution
Addition of sounds or syllables
Accent
Pronunciations of silent sounds
Pauses
Filled
Unfilled
Vocalized Pauses -
er, um, ah, well, and ‘you know’


Pronunciation
Mispronouncing words in public speaking may significantly damage your credibility
Errors of accent
Errors of pronouncing silent sounds
Bodily Action
Eye contact
Facial expression
Posture
Gestures
Movement
Proxemics
Anticipate likely questions and prepare answers
Encourage questions
Maintain eye contact
Pause before answering
If a question is deemed personal, respond that question is not relevant to topic
If appropriate, thank the questioner or note that it’s a good question
If you’re asked a question and don’t know the answer, say so
Q&A sessions can connect with main points
Don’t allow one person to dominate

Handling Audience Questions
What is criticism?
Culture and criticism
Guidelines for effective criticism
Don’t express negative evaluation in public
Don’t prove someone wrong
Don’t correct someone’s errors
Don’t ask difficult questions

Criticizing Speeches
Full transcript